Bibliography of Sources & Examples for Glossary of Orientalisms

This bibliography contains all of the sources cited in the Glossary of Orientalisms. They are not intended to be recommended sources for the study of Orientalism. In some cases, they are; but in other cases they are only passing usages of the term they exemplify. And while there are numerous duplications between this and the Main Bibliography, they are two distinct bibliographies with two different purposes. The Main Bibliography, it could be said, is an "official" one, while this one is more "playful" and contains some interesting items that would not normally appear in a bibliography on Orientalism.

Herb Swanson
April 2017

Note: in this bibliography, the Arabic prefixes "al-" and "Al-" are always alphabetized under the main part of the name.

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z



Abbadi, Fatima. (2015) “London Exhibition: ‘Parallel Orientalism’.” At Fatima Abbadi Photography (fatimaabbadi.blogspot.com). Accessed 14 July 2017.

Abbasi, Pyeaam, and Alireza Anushiravani. (2011) "Coleridge’s Colonial Interest in Abyssinian Christianity." k@ta 12, 2 (December 2011): 152-168.

Abdeen, Layla F., and Muna M. Abd-Rabbo. (2018) "Orientalist Discourse in John Updike’s The Coup: A Saidian/Foucauldian Perspective." Dirasat: Human and Social Sciences 45, 2 (2018): 315-325.

Abdel-Malek, Anouar. (1963) "Orientalism in Crisis." Diogenes 11, 44 (December 1963): 103-140.

Abdo, Nahla. (1995) “Feminism and Difference: The Struggle of Palestinian Women.” Canadian Woman Studies/Les Cahiers de la Feme 15, 2-3 (1995): 141-145.

Abdollmohammadi, Mehron. (2013) “Infant Phenomenology,” 26 October 2013. At OP: Original Plumbing (http://www.originalplumbing.com). Accessed 13 August 2016.

Abeysekara, Ananda. (2002) Colors of the Robe: Religion, Identity, and Difference. Columbia, South Carolina: University of South Carolina Press, 2002.

Abraham, Gerald. (1939) On Russian Music. London: William Reeves, 1939.

Abu-Lughod, Lila. (2013) Do Muslim Women Need Saving? Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2013.

__________. (2001) "’ Orientalism’ and Middle East Feminist Studies." Feminist Studies 27, 1 (Spring 2001): 101-113.

Abykayeva-Tiesenhausen, Aliya. (2016) Central Asia in Art: From Soviet Orientalism to the New Republics. London: IB Tauris. 2016.

Adam, Heribert, and Kogila Moodley. (2005) Seeking Mandela: Peacemaking Between Israelis and Palestinians. London: UCL Press, 2005.

Adamovsky, Ezqueil. (2006) Euro-Orientalism: Liberal Ideology and the Image of Russia in France (c. 1740-1880). Bern and Oxford: Peter Lang, 2006.

Adams, Gaar. (2017) “Inside Abu Dhabi's Most Rollicking Karaoke Joint,” 18 April 2017. At Citylab (https://www.citylab.com). Accessed 21 February 2018.

Adisa-Farrar, Teju. (2012) In-Between Things: A Book of Poetry, Stories of Identity, and Interpreting Society. Bloomington, Indiana: Xilbris Corporation, 2012.

Adler, Franklin Hugh (2009) "Israel's Mizrahim: "Other" Victims of Zionism or a Bridge to Regional Reconciliation?," Macalester International 23, 1 (2009): 159-173.

Afzal, Fawzia-Khan. (2014) “Re-orienting Orientalism: From Shafik Gabr’s What Orientalist Painters Can Teach Us About The Art Of East–West Dialogue to Ayad Akhtar’s Disgraced.” Arab Stages 1, 1 (Fall 2014). At Arab Stages (http://arabstages.org). Accessed 22 February 2018.

Aggarwal, Neil Krishan. (2011) “Medical Orientalism and the War on Terror: Depictions of Arabs and Muslims in the Psychodynamic Literature post-9/11.” Journal of Muslim Mental Health 6, 1 (2011): 4-20.

__________. (2015) Mental Health in the War on Terror: Culture, Science, and Statecraft. New York: Columbia University Press, 2015.

Aguirre, Susana. (2017) “Fashionable Roots: Textile Heritage in Contemporary Fashion Design in Peru.” In Textiles as National Heritage: Identities, Politics and Material Culture. Edited by Gabriele Mentges and Lola Shamukhitdinova, 67-88. Münster and New York: Waxmann, 2017.

Ahiska, Meltem. (2003) “Occidentalism: The Historical Fantasy of the Modern.” South Atlantic Quarterly 102, 2/3 (Spring/Summer 2003): 351-379.

Ahmad, Aijaz. (1987) “Jameson’s Rhetoric of Otherness and the ‘National Allegory’.” Social Text 17 (Autumn 1987): 3-25.

Ahmad, Dohra. (2009) Landscape of Hope: Anti-Colonial Utopianism in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Ahmed, Siraj. (2009) “Orientalism and the Permanent Fix of War.” In The Postcolonial Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Colonialism and Post-Colonial Theory. Edited by Daniel Carey and Lynn Festa, 167-206. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009.

Aiken, Edwin James. (2010) Scriptural Geography: Portraying the Holy Land. London and New York: I. B. Tauris, 2010.

Aitken, Ian. (2001) European Film Theory and Cinema: A Critical Introduction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2001.

Akbari, Suzanne Conklin. (2006) “Making Substantial Connections: A Critical Appreciation of Sheila Delany.” Florilegium 23, 1 (2006): 1-18.

Akbarzadeh, Shahram, and Bianca Smith. (2005) “The Representation of Islam and Muslims in the Media (The Age and Herald Sun Newspapers).” Sociology Compass 1, 2 (November 2007): 443-462.

Akhtar, Aasim Sajjad. (2014) “Orientalism lite,” 27 June 2014. At Dawn (http://www.dawn.com). Accessed 12 August 2016.

Akilli, Sinan. “Re-constructing the Western Self in the Ottoman Mirror: A Study of ‘Negative Auto-Occidentalism’ in the Contexts of American-Ottoman and Anglo-Ottoman Encounters.” Edebiyat Fakültesi Dergisi /Journal of Faculty of Letters 30, 1 (June 2013): 19-52.

Alam, Mohammad Shahid. (2002) “Bernard Lewis: Scholarship or Sophistry?” Studies in Contemporary Islam 4, 1 (Spring 2002): 53-80.

__________. (2006) Challenging the New Orientalism: Dissenting Essays on the ‘War Against Islam’. North Haledon, New Jersey: Islamic Publications International, 2006.

__________. (2012) “Native Orientalists in Pakistan,” May 2012. Social Science Research Network (http://papers.ssrn.com). Accessed 26 June 2016.

Alaoui, Ibrahim. (n.d.) “A Selection of Tunsian Contemporary Artists at Gallery 3,14,” n.d. At Stimftelsen 3,14 (http://www.stiftelsen314.com). Accessed 17 June 2017.

Alatas, Syed Farid.(2001) “Alternative Discourses in Southeast Asia.” Sari 19 (2001): 49-67.

__________. (2002) “Religion, Values and Capitalism in Asia.” In Local Cultures and the New Asia: The State, Culture, and Capitalism in Southeast Asia. Edited by C.J.W.-L. Wee, 107-128. Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002.

Alatas, Syed Farid, and Vineeta Sinha. (2001) “Teaching Classical Sociological Theory in Singapore: The Context of Eurocentrism.” Teaching Sociology 29 (July 2001): 316-331.

Alber, Jan. (2013) “The Specific Orientalism of Lord Byron’s Poetry.” AAA: Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Americanistik 38, 2 (2013): 107-127.

Alcalay, Ammiel. (1993) After Jews and Arabs: Remaking Levantine Culture. Minneapolis, Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press,1993.

Aldrich, Robert. (2003) Colonialism and Homosexuality. London and New York: Routledge, 2003.

Alford, C. Fred. (1999) Think No Evil: Korean Values in the Age of Globalization. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1999.

Alhawamdeh, Hussein A. (2013) “The Different Western Perception of the Oriental Moor in the Renaissance and the Twentieth Century: Shakespeare’s Othello and Tayeb Salih’s Season of Migration to the North: A Post Colonial Critique.” 
Transnational Literature 5, 2 (May 2013). 
At Flinders University Commons (http://dspace2.flinders.edu.au). Accessed 21 July 2017.

Ali, Syed Mustafa. (2015) “Orientalism and/as Information: The Indifference That Makes a Difference,” 2015. At The Open University (http://oro.open.ac.uk). Accessed 28 October 2017.

Aliabadi, Ali M. (2004) “Anti-Islamic book,” 2 September 2004. Letter, at Narkive: NewsGroup Archive (http://narkive.com). Accessed 12 May 2017.

Allen, Chris. (2010) Islamophobia. Farnham, Surrey, and Burlington, Vermont: Ashgate, 2010.

Allen, Grant. (1897) Evolution of the Idea of God: An Inquiry. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1897.

Almond, Ian. (2011) History of Islam in German Thought. London: Routledge, 2011.

Alpert, Avram. (2016) “Buddhism and the Postmodern Novel: Severo Sarduy’s Cobra.” Twentieth-Century Literature 62, 1 (March 2016): 32-55.

Alsayyad, Nezar. (1996) "The Study of Islamic Urbanism: an Historiographic Essay." Built Environment (1978-) 22, 2 (1996): 91-97.

Alter, Joseph S. (2000) Knowing Dil Das: Stories of a Himalayan Hunter. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000.

Alston, Vermonja Romona. (2004) “Race-Crossings at the Crossroads of African American Travel in the Caribbean.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 2004.

Altun, Fahrettin. (2011) “Orientalization Practices in Mainstream Turkish Foreign News Coverage.” Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs 16, 3 (Autumn 2011): 139-166.

Alun, David. "Sir William Jones, Biblical Orientalism and Indian Scholarship." Modern Asian Studies 30, 1 (February 1996): 173-184.

Amin-Khan, Tariq. (2012) “New Orientalism, Securitisation and the Western Media's Incendiary Racism.” Third World Quarterly 33, 9 (2012): 1595-1610.

Amit, Gish. (n.d.) “’This Heritage must be Saved from Oblivion’: The Hebrew University, the National Library of Israel, and the Manuscripts of the Jews of Yemen,” n.d. Paper, translated by Sue Goldian. At Docplayer (http://docplayer.net). Accessed 12 August 2017.

Anderson, Graham. (2014) Ancient Fiction: The Novel in the Graeco-Roman World. Oxon, England: Routledge, 2014.

Andrea, Bernadette. (2007) Women and Islam in Early Modern English Literature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Angotti, Thomas. (2012) The New Century of the Metropolis: Urban Enclaves and Orientalism. New York and London: Routledge, 2012.

Antonius, Rachad. (2013) “A Mediated Relationship: Media Representations of Arabs and Muslims as a Political Process.” In Targeted Transnationals: The State, the Media, and Arab Canadians. Edited by Jenna Hennebry and Bessma Momani, 110-128. Vancouver: UBC Press, 2013.

Aoyama, Yuko. (2007) “The Role of Consumption and Gobalization in a Cultural Industry: The Case of Flamenco.” Geoforum 38 (January 2007): 103-113.

Aponte, Edwin David. (2015) “Theologizing Popular Protestantism.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Latino/a Theology. Edited by Orlando O. Espin, 401-420. Chichester, England: Wiley Blackwell, 2015.

App, Urs. (2009) "William Jones’s Ancient Theology." Sino-Platonic Papers 191 (July, 2009).

Aravamudan, Srinivas. (2012) Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2012.

Archer, Louise, and Becky Francis. (2007) Understanding Minority Ethnic Achievement: Race, Gender, Class and 'Success'. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

Arditi, Oliver. (2013) “Luminous Monsters/Guranoman—We Go Wandering at Night and are Consumed by Fire (drone/math),” 6 June 2013. At Oliver Arditi (https://oliverarditi.com/2013/06/06/luminous-monsters-guanoman-we-go-wandering-at-night-and-are-consumed-by-fire/). Accessed 9 March 2019.

Armstrong, Richard H. (2007) “Last Words: Said, Freud, and Travelling Theory.” In Edward Said and Critical Decolonization. Edited by Ferial J. Ghazoul, 120-148. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2007.

Arnold, David John. (2006) The Tropics and the Traveling Gaze: India, Landscape, and Science, 1800-1865. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 2006.

Arti, Sulaiman. (2007) “The Evolution of Hollywood’s Representation of Arabs before 9/11: The Relationship between Events and the Notion of ‘Otherness’.” At Networking Knowledge: Journal of the MeCCSA Postgraduate Network 1, 2 (2007). At MeCCSA Postgraduate Network (http://ojs.meccsa.org.uk). Accessed 11 July 2016.

Asscari, Maurizio. (2006) “Shifting Borders: The Lure of Italy and the Orient in the Writings of 18th and 19th Century British Travellers.” In Sites of Exchange: European Crossroads and Faultlines. Edited by Maurizio Asscari and Adriana Corrodo, 227-236. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2006.

Ataöv, Türkkaya. (1972) "Some Notes On Soviet Orientology." Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Dergisi 27, 3 (1972): 477-539.

Auerbach, Jerold S. (2001) Are We One?; Jewish Identity in the United States and Israel. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 2001.

Aull, Felice, and Bradley Lewis. (2004) “Medical Intellectuals: Resisting Medical Orientalism.” Journal of Medical Humanities 25, 2 (Summer 2004): 87-108.

A.V.B. (1947) “Lakmé {60} Metropolitan Opera House,” 18 January 1947. At Metopera Database (http://archives.metoperafamily.org/archives/). Accessed 23 March 2019.

Avelar, Ana Paula. (2007) “Orientalism or Oriental Studies: Stereotypes and Rituality – the Tea Cult.” In Sights and Insights: Interactive Images of Europe and the Wider World. Edited by Mary N. Harris, 23-34. Pisa, Italy: PLUS-Pisa University Press, 2007.

Aydýn, Cemil. (2005) “Orientalism by the Orientals? The Japanese Empire and Islamic Studies (1931-1945).” Ýslâm Araþtýrmalarý Dergisi (Journal of Islamic Studies) 14 (2005): 1-36.

Azad, Hasan. (2014) Interview with Wael Hallaq, 21 May 2014. At Tabsir (http://tabsir.net). Accessed 15 July 2017.

Azadpur, Mohammad. (2007) “Is ‘Islamic’ Philosophy Islamic?” Voice of Islam. vol. 1 Voice of Tradition. Edited by Vincent J. Cornell, 23-41. Westport, Connecticut: Praeger, 2007.

__________. (2011) Reason Unbound: On Spiritual Practice in Islamic Peripatetic Philosophy. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press, 2011.

Aziz, Sohaimi Abdul. (2016) "Contesting and Rejoicing the Colonial Discourse: As Reflected in a Malay Postcolonial Novel Written during the British Colonialization," 2016. At SHS Web of Conferences 23 (https://www.shs-conferences.org). Accessed 25 October 2017.

al-Azm, Sadik Jalal. (2000) "Orientalism and Orientalism in Reverse." In Orientalism: A Reader. Edited by A. L. Macfie, 217-238. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2000.

Al-Azmeh, Aziz. (1986) Arabic Thought and Islamic Societies. London: Croom Helm, 1986.

__________. (2013) “The Mediterranean and Islam.” In Construire la Méditerranée, penser les transferts culturels: Approches historiographiques et perspectives de recherché. Edited by Rania Abdellatif, Yassir Benhima, Daniel König, and Elisabeth Ruchaud, 58-71. Munich, Germany: Oldenbourg Verlag, 2013.

__________. (2011) “The Orient’s Obtuse Antiquity.” In Multiple Antiquities - Multiple Modernities: Ancient Histories in Nineteenth Century European Cultures. Edited by Michael Werner,463-478. Frankfurt: Campus Verlag, 2011.


Baber, Zaheer. (2002) “Orientalism, Occidentalism, Nativism: the Culturalist Quest for Indigenous Science and Knowledge.” The European Legacy 7, 6 (2002): 747-758.

Babyak, Tekla B. (2014) “Nietzsche, Debussy, and the Shadow of Wagner.” Ph.D. dissertation, Cornell University, 2014.

Bachórz, Agata. (2016) “Disgusting Shark Meat and the Taste of North: Icelandic Food in the“Mouth”of Polish Tourists and Migrants.” In Mobility to the Edges of Europe: The Case of Island and Poland. Edited by Unnur Dís Skaptadóttir and Dorota Rancew-Sikora, 109-135. Warsaw: Scholar Publishing House, 2016.

Baddar, Maha. (2010) “From Athens (Via Alexandria) to Baghdad: Hybridity as Epistemology in the work of Al-Kindi, Al-Farbi, and the Rhetorical Legacy of the Medieval Arabic Translation Movement.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arizona, 2010.

Bahrani, Zainab. (2001) Women of Babylon: Gender and Representation in Mesopotamia. London and New York: Routledge, 2001.

Bahtia, Sunil. (2002) “Orientalism in Euro-American and Indian Psychology: Historical Representations of ‘Natives’ in Colonial and Postcolonial Contexts.” History of Psychology 5, 4 (December 2002): 376–398.

Baile, David. (2001) “Shabbtai Zvi and the Seductions of Jewish Orientalism.” Jerusalem Studies in Jewish Thought 17, 2 (2001 [English Section]): 85-110.

Bailey, Greg. (1989) “The Study of Religions in Australia: 2.” Australian Religion Studies Review 2, 3 (December 1989): 49-56.

Baier, Karl. (2016) “Theosophical Orientalism and the Structures of Intercultural Transfer: Annotations on the Appropriation of the Cakras in Early Theosophy.” In Theosophical Appropriations: Esotericism, Kabbalah, and the Transformation of Traditions. Edited by Julie Chajes and Boaz Huss, 309-352. [Beer-Sheva, Israel]: Ben Sheva Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Press, 2016.

Bain-Selbo, Eric. (2005) “Double Exposure.” Journal for Cultural and Religious Theory 6, 2 (Spring 2005): 95-100.

Baktir, Hasan. (2007) “Representation of the Ottoman Orient in Eighteenth Century English Literature.” Ph.D. dissertation, Middle East Technical University, 2007.

Baker, Carlos. (1934) “Emerson and Jones Very.” The New England Quarterly 7, 1 (March, 1934): 90-99.

Bakić-Hayden, Milica. "Nesting Orientalisms: The Case of Former Yugoslavia." Slavic Review 54, 4 (Winter 1995): 917-931.

Balakrishnan, Sreepriya. (2017) “Europa and Mahabharata: Mythscapes that Build and Un-Build Nations.” The Criterion: An International Journal in English 8, 5 (October 2017): 413-427.

Balci, Kerim. (2008) “S-type Dogmatic Orientalism.” World Bulletin 7, 49 (3 June 2008).

Balkiş Lale Babaoğlu. (2010) “Defining the Turk: Construction of Meaning in Operatic Orientalism.” International Review of the Aesthetics and Sociology of Music 41, 2 (December 2010): 185-193.

Ballaster, Ros. (2005) “Narrative Transmigrations: The Oriental Tale and the Novel in Eighteenth-Century Britain.” In A Companion to the Eighteenth-Century English Novel and Culture. Edited by Paula R. Backscheider and Catherine Ingrassia, 75-96. Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2005.

Baltimore, Sam. (2017) “Ashman’s Aladdin Archive: Queer Orientalism in the Disney Renaissance.” In The Disney Musical on Stage and Screen: Critical Approaches from ‘Snow White’ to ‘Frozen’. Edited by George Rodosthenous, 205-220. London and New York: Bloomsbury Methuen Drama, 2017.

Banerji, Debashish. (2009) The Alternative Nation of Abanindrath Tagore. London: SAGE Publications, 2009.

__________. (2013) “Sri Aurobindo, India, and Ideological Discourse.” International Journal of Dharma Studies 1, 1 (December 2013): 1-17.

Banerjea, Koushik and Jatinder Barn. (1996) “Versioning Terror: Jallianwala Bagh and the Jungle.” In Inventing Rhythms: The Politics of the New Asian Dance Music. Edited by Sanjay Sharma, John Hutnyk and Ashwani Sharma, 193-216. London: Zed Books, 1996.

Barbour, Richmond. (2003) Before Orientalism: London's Theatre of the East, 1576-1626. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003.

Barbieri, Donatella. (2017) Costume in Performance: Materiality, Culture, and the Body. London and New York: Bloomsbury, 2017.

Barfoot, Cedric C. (1998) "English Romantic Poets and the ‘Free-Floating Orient.’" In Oriental Prospects: Western Literature and the Lure of the East. Edited by C.C. Barfoot and Theo D’haen, 65-96. Amsterdam and Atlanta: Rodopi, 1998.

Barkawi, Tarak and Keith Stanski. (2012) “Orientalism and War.” In Orientalism and War. Edited by Tarak Barkawi and Keith Stanski, 1-18. New York: Columbia University Press, 2012.

Barlow, Joanna R. (2005) Subject to Change: The Lessons of Latin American Women’s Testimonio for Truth, Fiction, & Theory. Chapel Hill, North Carolina: University of North Carolina. Department of Romance, 2005.

Barnett, Robert. (2001) "'Violated Specialness’: Western Political Representations of Tibet.” In Imagining Tibet-Perceptions, Projections, and Fantasies. Edited by Thierry Dodin and Heinz Raether, 269-316. Boston: Wisdom Publications, 2001.

Barrows, Adam. (2011) “Time Without Partitions: Midnight’s Children and Temporal Orientalism.” Ariel: A Review of International English Literature 42, 3-4 (July-October 2011): 89-101.

Bartulović, Alenka. (2010) “’We have an Old Debt With the Turk, and it Best be Settled': Ottoman Incursions through the Discursive Optics if Slovenian Historiography and Literature and Their Applicability in the Twenty-first century.” In Imagining 'the Turk'. Edited by Božidar Jezernik, 111-136. Newcastle upon Tyne, England: Cambridge Scholars, 2010.

Bar-Yosef, Eitan. (2004) "'Green and Pleasant Lands': England and the Holy Land in Plebeian Millenarian Culture, c. 1790-1820." In A New Imperial History: Culture, Identity and Modernity in Britain and the Empire 1660-1840. Edited by Kathleen Wilson, 155-175. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Bash, Leslie. (2012) “Intercultural Education and the Global-Local Context: Critiquing the Culturalist Narrative.” Issues in Educational Research 22, 1 (2012): 18-28.

Basri, Mohammad Hasan. (2011) “Feminine Dimension in Islam and the Era of Masculinization Toward Nature.” Egalita Jurnal Kesetaraan dan Keadilan Gender 6, 2 (June 2011): 95-102.

Basu, Manisha. (2017) The Rhetoric of Hindutva. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

Battersby, Christine. (2007) The Sublime, Terror and Human Difference. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.

Battis, Matthias. (2015) "Soviet Orientalism and Nationalism in Central Asia: Aleksandr Semenov's Vision of Tajik National Identity." Iranian Studies 48, 5 (2015): 729-745.

Baviskar, Amita. (2006) “The Politics of Being ’Indigenous’.” In Indigeneity in India. Edited by Bengt T. Karlsson and T.B. Subba, 33-50. London: Kegan Paul, 2006.

Bayat, Asef. (2010) Life as Politics: How Ordinary People Change the Middle East. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2010.

__________. (2015) “Neo-Orientalism,” 19 September 2015. At ISA: The Futures We Want (http://futureswewant.net). Accessed 1 November 2017.

Bayeh, Jumana, and Sahar Amer. (2017) “Community Activism and Creative Practice in Australia: An Interview with Paula Abood.” Mashriq & Mahjar 4, 2 (2017): 118-132.

Bayly, Christopher Alan. (1996) Empire and Information: Intelligence Gathering and Social Communication in India, 1780-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Bayly, Martin J. (2016) Taming the Imperial Imagination: Colonial Knowledge, International Relations, and the Anglo-Afghan Encounter, 1808-1878. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016.

Al-Bazei, Saad Abdulrahman. (1983) “Literary Orientalism in Nineteenth-Century Angl-American Literature: Its Formation and Continuity.” Ph.D. dissertation, Purdue University, 1983.

Beach, Harlan Page. (1896) Knights of the Labarum: Being Studies in the Lives of Judson, Duff, Mackenzie and Mackay. Chicago: Student Volunteer Movement for Foreign Missions, 1896.

Beardslee, W. Armitage. (1892) “The Church in Russia.” Missionary Review of the World 15, 2 (October 1892): 745-748.

Beckett, Katharine Scarfe. (2003) Anglo-Saxon Perceptions of the Islamic World. Cambridge: Cambridge University, 2003.

Behdad, Ali. (1994) Belated Travellers: Orientalism in the Age of Colonial Dissolution. Cork: Cork University Press, 1994.

__________. (2010) “Orientalism Matters.” Mfs: Modern Fiction Studies 56, 4 (Winter 2010): 709-728.

__________. (2011) The Orientalist Photograph. Valencia, California: California Institute of the Arts, School of Critical Studies, 2011.

__________. (1990) "Split Orientalism: The Micropolitics of Modern Representations of Europe's Other." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Michigan, 1990.

Behnke, Andreas. (2013) NATO’s Security Discourse After the Cold War: Representing the West. London and New York: Routledge, 2013.

Bellenoit, Hayden J. A. (2007) Missionary Education and Empire in Late Colonial India, 1860-1920. London and New York: Rutledge, 2007.

Benjamin, Roger. (2003) Orientalist Aesthetics: Art, Colonialism, and French North Africa, 1880-1930. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2003.

__________. (2004) “Orientalism, Modernism and Indigenous Identity." In Art of the Avant-gardes. Edited by Steve Edwards and Paul Wood, 85-103. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 2004.

Bennett, Clinton. (2014) “Empires and Religions: Colonialism, Postcolonialism, and Orientalism.” In Controversies in Contemporary Religion: Education, Law, Politics, Society, and Spirituality, vol. 1. Edited by Paul Hedges, 273-302. Santa Barbara, California: Praeger, an imprint of ABC-CLIO, LLC, 2014.

Berg, Christopher, and Melanie Shaw. (2014) “Debating Controversial History: A Twenty-First Century Re-Appraisal of the Orientalist Debate, its Key Actors, and its Future.” The International Journal of Learner Diversity and Identities 20 (2014): 1-16.

Bernstein, Matthew. (1997) “Introduction.” In Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film. Edited by Matthew Bernstein and Gaylyn Studlar, 1-18. New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1997.

Bertsch, Charlie. (2009) “Love Lessons,” 17 August 2009. At Jewcy (http://jewcy.com). Accessed 20 December 2017.

Bevir, Mark. (1994) "The West Turns Eastward: Madame Blavatsky and the Transformation of the Occult Tradition." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 62, 3 (Fall 1994): 747-767.

Beydoun, Khaled A. (2016) “Between Indigence, Islamophobia, and Erasure: Poor and Muslim in ‘War on Terror’ America.” California Law Review 104, 6 (December 2016): 1463-1501.

__________. (2018) “The ‘Middle East’…,” 14 July 2018. At Khaled Beydoun @Khaled Beydoun (https://twitter.com/khaledbeydoun/status/1018166954832613378). Accessed 11 November 2018.

Beyhom, Amine. (2017) “What Future for Arabian Music after Two Centuries of Musicological Orientalism?,” 30 March 2017. At OIB: Orient Institut Beirut (https://www.orient-institut.org). Accessed 23 October 2018.

Biddick, Kathleen. (1998) The Shock of Medievalism. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1998.

Bilgin, Pinar. (2006) “What Future for Middle Eastern Studies?” Futures 38, 5 (June 2006): 575-585.

Bilimoria, Purushottama . (2008) “Nietzsche as ‘Europe’s Buddha’ and ‘Asia’s Superman’.” Sophia 47, 3 (November 2008): 359-376.

__________. (2015) “Philosophical Orientalism in Comparative Philosophy of Religion: Hegel to Habermas (& Zîzêk).” Cultura Oriental 2, 2 (July-December 2015): 47-63.

Billington, Michael. (2008) “Chu Chin Chow,” 17 July 2008. At The Guardian (https://www.theguardian.com). Accessed 27 February 2018.

Binhammer, Katherine, et. al. (2014) “Srinivas Aravamudan’s Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel: A Roundtable Discussion." Lumen 33 (2014): 1-26.

Binhammer, Katherine, Eugenia Zuroski Jenkins, Daniel O’Quinn, Mary Helen McMurran, and Srinivas Aravamudan. (2014) “Srinivas Aravamudan’s Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel: A Roundtable Discussion.” Lumen 33 (2014): 1–26.

Birnbaum, Daniel. (2006b) “Air Portikus,” 8 June 2006. At domus (https://www.domusweb.it/en/architecture). Accessed 9 July 2018.

Birnbaum, Marianna. (2006a) "Renaissance Orientalism." Harvard Ukrainian Studies 28 (2006): 379-38. .

Bissell, William Cunningham. (2005) “Engaging Colonial Nostalgia.” Cultural Anthropology 20, 2 (May 2005): 215–248.

Bittersweet. (2003) “Orientalism by Edward Said,” 11 October 2003. At The Literature Network Forums (http://www.online-literature.com/forums). Accessed 17 July 2017.

Bivins, Roberta E. (200) Acupuncture, Expertise and Cross-Cultural Medicine. New York: Palgrave, 2000. .

Blanco, John D. (2016) “Oriental Enlightenment and the Colonial World: A Derivative Discourse?” In Filipino Studies: Palimpsests of Nation and Diaspora. Edited by Martin F. Manalansan and Augusto Espiritu, 56-83. New York: New York University Press, 2016.

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