Christian Orientalism Bibliography

Last Updated: July 2019

This bibliography contains sources that have grown out of the decades long debate over Orientalism sparked primarily by the work of Edward W. Said. The sources here have specifically to do with "Christian Orientalism," that is the role of the Christian religion as a factor in Orientalism both in the West and in the rest of the world. Generally, only sources that are directly related to the subject of Christian Orientalism are included while sources concerned with such questions as the relationship of Christianity to imperialism are not unless they refer clearly and importantly to Orientalism. The bibliography was first posted online in October 2015.

Herb Swanson
October 2015



Abdul-Masih, Magi. “Orientalism in Christian Theology.” In Christians and the Middle East Conflict. Edited Paul S. Rowe, John H. A. Dyck xxand Jens Zimmermann, 44-52. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Akbari, Suzanne Conklin. Idols in the East: European Representations of Islam and the Orient, 1100–1450. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University xxPress, 2009.

Alun, David. "Sir William Jones, Biblical Orientalism and Indian Scholarship." Modern Asian Studies 30, 1 (February 1996): 173-184.

Andersen, Christoffer M. "Balkan Anti-Westernism, Orthodoxism and ‘Orientalism’: A legacy of the Ottoman Empire?" Unpublished xxpaper, 2007.

Andersen, Peter B., and Susanne Foss. "Christian Missionaries and Orientalist Discourse: Illustrated by Materials on the Santals after xx1855." In Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-cultural Communication Since 1500, with Special Reference to Caste, Conversion, and xxColonialism. Edited by Robert Eric Frykenberg and Alaine M. Low, 295-314. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans, 2003.

App, Urs. The Birth of Orientalism: Encounters with Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

__________. "William Jones’s Ancient Theology." Sino-Platonic Papers 191 (July, 2009).


Bagchee, Joydeep, and Vishwa P. Adluri. "The Passion of Paul Hacker: Indology, Orientalism, and Evangelism." In Transcultural Encounters xxBetween Germany and India: Kindred Spirits in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Edited by Joanne Miyang Cho, Eric Kurlander, and xxDouglas T. McGetchin, 215-229. London and New York: Routledge, 2014.

Balagnangadhara, S. N. “Orientalism, Postcolonialism and the ‘Construction’ of Religion.” In Rethinking Religion in India. Edited by Esther xxBloch, Marianne Keppens and Raharam Hegde, 216-262. London and New York: Routledge, 2010.

Barbour, John D. "The Ethics of Intercultural Travel: Thomas Merton's Asian Pilgrimage and Orientalism." Biography 28, 1 (Winter 2005): xx15-26.

Bartelink, Brenda E. "Shifting Perspectives: Analyzing Discourses on Faith-Based Development Organisations in the Fight Against xxHIV/AIDS." In Political, Social and Religious Dimensions in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS: Negotiating Worldviews, Facing Practical Challenges. xxEdited by Brenda Bartelink and Ulla Pape,185-201.

Bartholomeusz, Tessa. “Spiritual Wealth and Neo-Orientalism.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 35, 1 (Winter 1998), 19-32.

Bar-Yosef, Eitan. "'Green and Pleasant Lands': England and the Holy Land in Plebeian Millenarian Culture, c. 1790-1820." In A New Imperial xxHistory: Culture, Identity and Modernity in Britain and the Empire 1660-1840. Edited by Kathleen Wilson, 155-175. Cambridge: Cambridge xxUniversity Press, 2004.

__________. The Holy Land in English Culture 1799-1917: Palestine and the Question of Orientalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Becker, Adam H. ‪Revival and Awakening: American Evangelical Missionaries in Iran and the Origins of Assyrian Nationalism. Chicago: xxUniversity of Chicago Press, 2015.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Bellenoit, Hayden J. A. Missionary Education and Empire in Late Colonial India, 1860-1920. London and New York: Rutledge, 2007.

Bennett, Stephen. "Jerusalem as a City ‘Reclaimed’: Orientalism and Biblical Discourse in US Media 1948 and 1967." Jerusalem Quarterly 44 xx(Winter 2010): 75-91.

Boettcher, Susan R. “German Orientalism in the Age of Confessional Consolidation: Jacob Andreae's Thirteen Sermons on the Turk, xx1568.” Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East 24, 2 (01/2004):101-115.

Brown, Stewart J. "William Robertson, Early Orientalism and the Historical Disquisition on India of 1791." Scottish Historical Review 88, 2 xx(October 2009): 289-312.

Borutta, Manuel. "Settembrini's World: German and Italian Anti-Catholicism in the Age of the Culture Wars." In European Anti-Catholicism xxin a Comparative and Transnational Perspective. Edited by Yvonne Maria Werner and Jonas Harvard, 43-70. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, xx2013.

Bulaç, Aií. “Church Orientalism.” At Today’s Azman (1 August 2010).

Bulman, William. Anglican Enlightenment: Orientalism, Religion and Politics in England and its Empire, 1648-1715. Cambridge: Cambridge xxUniversity Press, 2015.


Cavalieratos, Alexander. “Encountering Palestine: Sweish Pilgrim-Tourists between Colonialism and the Bible.” In Encounters: xxRepresentations fo the Others in Modern European History. Edited by Madeleine Hurd, 91-132. Huddinge, Sweden: Södertörns högskola 2003.

Cassels, Nancy Gardner, ed. Orientalism, Evangelicalism, and the Military Cantonment in Early Nineteenth-Century India: A Historiographical xxOverview. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Cawsey, Kathy. “Disorienting Orientalisms: Finding Saracens in Strange Places in Late Medieval English Manuscripts.” Exemplaria 21, 4 xx(October 2009): 380-397.

Champion, Justin. "'I Remember a Mahometan Story of Ahmed ben Edris': Freethinking Uses of Islam from Stubbe to Toland." Al-xxQanṭara 31, 2 (2010): 443-480.

Chan, Adrian. "Universalism and Ethnocentrism: Christianity, Chinese Culture and Sinology." In Orientalism in Sinology, 21-54. Palo Alto, xxCalifornia: Academic Press, LLC, 2010.

Clooney, Francis X. "Vedânta, Theology, and Modernity: Theology's New Conversation With the World's Religions." Theological Studies 51, xx2 (June 1990): 268-284.

Cole, Ann Louise.  "Becoming All Things to All Men: The Role of Jesuit Missions in Early Modern Globalization."  Ph.D. dissertation, xxUniversity of Arkansas, 2015.

Constable, Philip. "Scottish Missionaries, 'Protestant Hinduism' and the Scottish Sense of Empire in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-xxCentury India." Scottish Historical Review 86, 222, Part 2 (October 2007): 278-313.

Corrado, Mark. "Orientalism in Reverse: Henry Corbin, Iranian Philosophy, and the Critique of the West." M.A. thesis, Simon Fraser xxUnviersity, 2004.

Cox, Jeffrey. “George Alfred Lefroy, 1854-1919: A Bishop in Search of a Church.”  In After the Victorians: Private Conscience and Public Duty xxin Modern Britain.  Edited by Susan Pedersen and Peter Mandler, 57-80.  London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

Cummings, Alex. "Life in the Menagerie: David Crockett Graham and Missionary-Scientists in West China, 1911-1948." American Baptist xxQuarterly 27, 3 (Fall 2009): 206-227.

Curtis, Michael. Orientalism and Islam: European Thinkers on Oriental Despotism in the Middle East and India. Cambridge and New York: xxCambridge University Press, 2009.


Dae-Kwang, Choi. "Reconstruction of Korean-Christian Experience in Post-Colonial Era." Madang: Journal of Contextual Theology 11 (June xx2009): 59-74.

David, Alun. “Sir William Jones, Biblical Orientalism and Indian Scholarship.” Modern Asian Studies 30, 1 (February 1996): 173-184.

Davies, Jeremy. "Jewish Tunes, or Hebrew Melodies: Byron and the Biblical Orient." In Byron and Orientalism. Edited by Peter Cochran, xx197-214. New Castle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006.


Dempsey, Corinne G. "The Suffering Indian Nun and the Wandering (Drunken) Irish Priest: Orientalism and Celticism Unplugged." xxIn Bringing the Sacred Down to Earth: Adventures in Comparative Religion, 21-48. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.


Dobe, Timothy S. Hindu Chjristian Faqir: Modern Monks, Global Christianity, and Indian Sainthood. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.


Dodson, Michael S. Orientalism, Empire, and National Culture: India, 1770-1880. New Delhi: Foundation Books, 2011.


Dorman, Jacob S. "Lifted Out of the Commonplace Grandeur of Modern Times: Reappraising Edward Wilmot Blyden's Views of Islam xxand Afrocentrism in Light of His Scholarly Black Christian Orientalism." Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 12, 4 xx(2010): 398-418.


__________. “’We are Israelites but Not Jews’: Orientalism and Israelism in the Holiness-Pentecostal Movement.” In Chosen People: The Rise xxof American Black Israelite Religions, 81-112. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.


Doyle, Sean. "Orientalism." In Synthesizing the Vedanta: The Theology of Pierre Johanns, S.J., 82-101. Oxford and New York: Peter Lang, 2006.


DuBois, Thomas David, ed. Casting Faiths: Imperialism and the Transformation of Religion in East and Southeast Asia. Basingstoke, England: xxPalgrave Macmillan, 2009.



Ellison, C. Bradford. “Imagining the Poor: The Discourse that Directs Western Intervention in Africa and Its Impact on the Condition of American xxPoverty.” Honors thesis, Duke University, 2016. [See Chapter Two]

Emanet, Celal. "An American Missionary to Islam: Samuel Marinus Zwemer." The Journal of Academic Social Science [Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar xxDergisi] 2, 1 (March 2014): 225-236.

Emerson, Tamara C. “Relating Transcendentally: New England Transcendentalism, U. S. Evangelicalism, and the Antebellum Orientalization of xxChina.” Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne State University, 2008.


Fieldman, Jackie and Amos S. Ron. "American Holy Land: Orientalism, Disneyization, and the Evangelical Gaze." In Orient - Orientalistik - xxOrientalismus: Geschichte und Aktualität einer Debatte. Edited by Burkhard Schnepel, Gunnar Brands, and Hanne Schönig, 151-176. xxBielefeld, Germany: transcript Verlag, 2011.

Fry, Michael. (2012) “’The Key to their Hearts’: Scottish Orientalism.” In Scotland and the 19th-Century World. Edited by Gerard Carruthers, xxDavid Goldie, and Alastair Renfrew, -157. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2012.


Ganim, John M. Medievalism and Orientalism: Three Essays on Literature, Architecture and Cultural Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, xx2005. [Biblical Orientalism]

Garcia, Humberto. "In the Name of the “Incestuous Mother”: Islam and Excremental Protestantism in De Quincey’s Infidel Book." Journal xxfor Early Modern Cultural Studies 7, 2 (Fall/winter 2007): 57-87.

Gelders, Raf, and S. N. Balagnangadhara. "Rethinking Orientalism: Colonialism and the Study of Indian Traditions." History of Religions 51, xx2 (Novebmer 2011): 101-128.

Ghorgopoulou, Maria. "Orientalism and Crusader Art: Constructing a New Caanon." Medieval Encounters 5, 3 (1999): 289 – 321.

Gill, Jagvinder. "Imran Ahmad–The Unimagined Return of Missionary Orientalism." In "Re-Oriented Britain–How British Asian Travellers and Settlers have Utilised and Reversed Orientalist Discourse 1770-2010," 338-354. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Warwick, 2010.

Girardot, Norman J. “The Victorian Text of Chinese Religion: With Special Reference to the Protestant Paradigm of James xxLegge's Religions of China.” Cahiers d'Extrême-

xxAsie 12 (2001): 23-57.

__________. The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge's Oriental Pilgrimage. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2002.

Goh, Robbie G. H. "Film-as-Maturion: Faith, Healing and “The Body” in Evangelical Orientalism." Material Religion: The Journal of Objects, xxArt and Belief 11, 4 (2015): 465-483.

Green, Nile. “Parnassus of the Evangelical Empire: Orientalism and the English Universities, 1800-50.” Journal of Imperial and xxCommonwealth History 40, 3 (September 2012): 337-355.

__________. "Parnassus of the Evangelical Empire." In Terrains of Exchange: Religious Economies of Global Islam, 43-65. Oxford: Oxford xxUniversity Press, 2015.

Grafton, David D. "An Early American Orientalist Lutheran Perspective of Islam: Lewis Eichelberger and his Sources.” Journal of the xxLutheran Historical Conference (2011).

__________. Piety, Politics, and Power: Lutherans Encountering Islam in the Middle East. Eugene Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2009.

Gualtieri, Antonio Roberto. "Hermeneutics of the Old and New Orientalism [Wilfred Cantwell Smith's Personalist Hermeneutic]." In The xxContemporary Study of the Arab World. Edited by Earl L. Sullivan and Jacqueline S. Ismael, 51-61. Edmonton, Alberta: University of xxAlberta Press, 1991.

Guenther, Alan M. "The Image of the Prophet as Found in Missionary Writings of the Late Nineteenth Century." Muslim World 90, 1-2 xx(March 2000): 43-70.

Gunn, Geoffrey C. "Catholic Cosmologies." In First Globalization: The Eurasian Exchange, 1500 to 1800, 85-112. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman xx& Littlefield, 2003.


Haldar, Piyel. "Anglican Pleasures in the Orient: Staging the Rule of Law." In Law, Orientalism and Postcolonialism: The Jurisdiction of the xxLotus-Eaters, 127-150. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.


Han, Kang-Hee. "Empires, Missions, and Education: Mission Schools and Resistance Movements in Modern Korea, 1885-1919. Ph.D. xxdissertation, University of Edinburgh, 2013.

Hart, William D. Edward Said and the Religious Effects of Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Hedges, Paul. “Post-Colonialism, Orientalism, and Understanding: Religious Studies and the Christian Missionary Imperative.” Journal of xxReligious History 32, 1 (March 2008): 55-75.

Hochberg, Gil Z. “’ Remembering Semitism’ or ‘On the Prospect of Re-Membering the Semites.’” ReOrient 1, 21 (Spring 2016): 192-223.

Holloway, Steven W., ed. Orientalism, Assyrialogy and the Bible. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007.

Hopwood, Derek. "Albert Hourani: Islam, Christianity and Orientalism." British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 30, 2 (November 2003): xx127-136.

Hubers, John. I Am a Pilgrim, a Traveler, a Stranger: Exploring the Life and Mind of the First American Missionary to the Middle East, the Rev. xxPliny Fisk (1792-1825).  Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2016.

Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman. "Appropriating Islam: The Islamic Other in the Consolidation of Western Modernity." Critique: Critical Middle xxEastern Studies 12, 1 (Spring 2003): xx25–41.



Ishimori, Daichai. "Disentangling Fundamentalism and Nativistic Movements: An Analysis of the Christian Fellowship Church in the xxSolomon Islands." People and Culture in Oceania 23 (2007): 33-52.


Jackson, Carl T. The Oriental Religions and American Thought: Nineteenth-Century Explorations. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, xx1981.

Jacob, Anna. "Missionary Scholarship in Colonial India." In Engaging the University and Nation: A Christian Perspective. Edited by Jeremiah xxAmai Veino Duomai, 15-24. New Delhi: Primalogue Publishing Media, 2016.

Jerslid, Austin. "Orthodoxy: The Society for the Restoration of Orthodoxy in the Caucasus." In Orientalism and Empire: North Caucasus xxMountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier, 1845-1917, 38-58. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.

Jivraj, Suhraiya, and Didi Herman. "'It is Difficult for a White Judge to Understand': Orientalism, Racialisation, and Christianity in English xxChild Welfare Cases." Child and Family Law Quarterly 21, 3 (2009): 283-308.

Johnson , Christopher D. L. “’He Has Made the Dry Bones Live’: Orientalism’s Attempted Resuscitation of Eastern Christianity.” Journal of xxthe American Academy of Religion 82, 3 (September 2014):1-30.


Kahl, Brigitte. “Galatians and the ‘Orientalism’ of Justification by Faith: Paul among Jews and Muslims.” In The Colonized Apostle: Paul xxthrough Postcolonial Eyes. Edited by Christopher Stanley, 206-222. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.

Kalmar, Ivan. "Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: The Formation of a Secret." Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge 7, xx2 (Spring 2009): 135-144.

__________. “Arabizing the Bible: Racial Supersessionism in Nineteenth Century Christian Art and Biblical Criticism.” In Orientalism xxRevisited: Land, Art and Voyage. Edited by Richard Netton, 176-186. London: Routledge, 2013.

__________. Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the Notion of Sublime Power. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.

__________. “Jesus Did Not Wear a Turban: Orientalism, the Jews, and Christian Art." In Orientalism and the Jews. Edited by Ivan Kalmar xxand Derek J. Penslar, 3-31. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press, 2005.

__________. “Jews and Muslims, Imagined Together: Bible, Orientalism, and Race in the Long Nineteenth Century." At xx( Accessed 11 April 2017.

__________. “Jews in Turbans: Orientalism, Christianity, and Western Art," n.d. Unpublished paper. At Computing in the Humanities and xxSocial Sciences, Faculty of Arts & Science, University of Toronto ( Accessed 29 July 2017.

Kamel, Lorenzo. “The Impact of ‘Biblical Orientalism' in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Palestine.” New Middle Eastern xxStudies 4 (2014). At BRISMES: British Society for Middle Eastern Studies. ( Accessed 28 May 2016.

Kang, Namsoon. "Who/What is Asian? A Postcolonial Theological Reading of Orientalism and Neo-Orientalism." in Postcolonial Theologies: xxDivinity and Empire. Edited by Catherine Keller, Michael Nausner, and Mayra Rivera, 100-117. St. Louis, Missouri: Chalice Press, 2004.

Ketelaar, James E. "Strategic Occidentalism: Meiji Buddhists at the World's Parliament of Religions." Buddhist-Christian Studies 11 (1991): xx37-56.

Khalaf, Samir. Cultural Resistance: Global and Local Encounters in the Middle East. London: Saqi Books, 2001.

__________. “Protestant Images of Islam: Disparaging Stereotypes Reconfirmed.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 8, 2 (1997): 211-229.

__________. Protestant Missionaries in the Levant: Ungodly Puritans, 1820-1860. London, New York: Routledge, 2012.

Kim, Nami. "Engaging Afro/Black-Orientalism: A Proposal." Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion 1, 7 (June 2010).

King, Richard. “Orientalism and the Modern Myth of ‘Hinduism’.” Numen 46, 2 (1999): 146-185.

__________. Orientalism and Religion: Postcolonial Theory, India and “the Mystic East”. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

Kinoshita, Sharon. "'Pagans are Wrong and Christians are Right': Alterity, Gender, and Nation in the Chanson de Roland." Journal of xxMedieval and Early Modern Studies 31, 1 (Winter 2001): 79-111.

Klassen, Pamela E. "Ritual Appropriation and Appropriate Ritual: Christian Healing and Adaptations of Asian Religions." History and xxAnthropology 16, 3 (September 2005): 377–391.

Koo, Dong Yun. The Holy Spirit and Ch'i (Qi): A Chiological Approach to Pneumatology. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2012.

Kopf, David. British Orientalism and the Bengal Renaissance: The Dynamics of Indian Modernization, 1773-1835. Berkeley, California: University xxof California Press, 1969.


Laffan, Michael. The Makings of Indonesian Islam: Orientalism and the Narration of a Sufi Past. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Larocque, Emily. "Translating Representations: Orientalism in the Colonial Indian Province of Bengal (1770s-1830s)." Constellations 3,1 xx(2012): 31-39.

Ledger-Lomas, Michael. “Conder and Sons: Dissent and the Oriental Bible in Nineteenth-Century Britain.” In Dissent and the Bible in xxBritain, 1650-1950. Edited by Scott Mandelbrote and Michael Ledger-Lomas, 205-232. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Lehmann, James H. "The Vicar of Wakefield: Goldsmith's Sublime, Oriental Job." ELH 46, 1 (Spring, 1979): 97-121.

Leong, Karen J. The China Mystique: Pearl S. Buck, Anna May Wong, Mayling Soong, and the Transformation of American Orientalism. Berkeley xxand Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.

Levitt, Stephan Hillyer . “A Note on Early American Orientalism: Two Thai Manuscripts in the Collection of the University Museum of the xxUniversity of Pennsylvania.” Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 5, 1, Special Thai Issue (Part Two) (1990): xx85-89.

Liebelt, Claudia. (2008) "On Sentimental Orientalists, Christian Zionists, and Working Class Cosmopolitans: Filipina Domestic Workers’ xxJourneys to Israel and Beyond." Critical Asian Studies 40, 4 (2008): 567-585.

Lim, Walter S. H. "John Milton, Orientalism, and the Empires of the East in Paradise Lost." In The English Renaissance, Orientalism, and the xxIdea of Asia. Edited by Debra Johanyak and Walter S. H. Lim, 203-236. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

__________. John Milton, Radical Politics, and Biblical Republicanism. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press, 2006.

Locke, Ralph P. "Constructing the Oriental 'Other': Saint-Saens's "Samson et Dalila". Cambridge Opera Journal 3, 3 (November 1991): 261-xx302.

Lockman, Zachary. Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, xx2004.

Lorenzen, David N. “Marco della Tomba and the Brahmin from Banaras: Missionaries, Orientalists, and Indian Scholars.” Journal of Asian xxStudies 65, 1 (February 2006): 115-143.

Louthan, Timothy. "Champion of Syria, Revisionist Historian of Islam: The Jesuit Orientalist Henri Lammens (1862-1937)." B.A. thesis, xxKendrick K. Kelly Program, Davidson College, 2015.


MacLeod, Alex. "Can Any Good Thing Come Out Of Palestine? Orientalism and Eastern Christianity in Protestant Writings about the xxHoly Land, 1839-1908." Historical Papers: Canadian Society of Church History (2006): 39-54.

Makdisi, Ussama. Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East. Ithaca, New York and London: xxCornell University Press, 2008.

Mansour, Opher Nissim. "Islam, Orientalism and Diplomacy in the Decoration of the Early-Modern Papal Audience Chamber, 1492-1622." xxPaper presented to the conference on Splendid Encounters I: Diplomats and Diplomacy in Europe, 1500-1750, Warsaw, 20-21 September xx2013.

Marandi, Seyyed Mohammad. "'Imaginative Geography': Orientalist Discourse in Paradise Lost." Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji 56, Special xxIssue, English (Spring 2010): 181-196.

Marchand, Suzanne L. "German Orientalism and the Decline of the West." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 145, 4 (December xx2001): 465-473.

__________. “Toward an Oriental Christianity." In German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race, and Scholarship, 252-291. xxCambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Marr, Timothy. "'Drying Up the Euphrates': Muslims, Millennialism, and Early American Missionary Enterprise." In The Cultural Roots of xxAmerican Islamicism, 82-133. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

McCabe, Baghdiantz. Orientalism in Early Modern France: Eurasian Trade, Exoticism, and the Ancien Régime. Oxford and New York: Berg, xx2008.

McMylor, Peter, and Maria Vorozhishcheva. "Sociology and Eastern Orthodoxy." In The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Edited xxby Kenneth Perry, 462-479. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Mellor, Philip A. "Orientalism, Representation, and Religion: the Reality Behind the Myth." Religion 34, 2 (April 2004): 99-112.

Michelson, David A. "Mixed Up by Time and Chance? Using Digital Media to 'Re-Orient' the Syriac Religious Literature of Late xxAntiquity." Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture 5, 1 (2016): 136-182.

Millar, Ashley E. "The Jesuits as Knowledge Brokers Between Europe and China (1582-1773): Shaping European Views of the Middle xxKingdom." Unpublished paper. Economic History Working Papers, 105/07. Department of Economic History, London School of xxEconomics and Political Science. London, 2007.

Milman, Henry Hart. "Christianity and Orientalism." In The History of Christianity from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in the xxRoman Empire, vol. 2, 34,90. New York: A. C. Armstrong and Son, 1887.

Molendijk, Arie L. (2000) “At the Cross-Roads: Early Dutch Science of Religion in International Perspective.” In Man, Meaning, & History. xxHundred Years of History of Religions in Norway. The Heritage of W. Brede Kristensen. Edited by Sigurd Hjelde, 19-56. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Moore, Brenna. “Religious Difference and ‘The Human Spirit': French Catholic Orientalism after Secularism.” A paper presented at the xxAnnual meeting of the American Catholic Historical Association in January 2015.

Murre-van den Berg, Heleen. New Faith in Ancient Lands: Western Missions in the Middle East in the Nineteenth and Early Twentienth Centuries. xxLeiden and Boston: Brill, 2006.



Nelson, Alissa Jones. Power and Responsibility in Biblical Interpretation: Reading the Book of Job with Edward Said. London and New York: xxRoutledge, 2012.

Newberg, Eric Nelson. The Pentecostal Mission in Palestine: The Legacy of Pentecostal Zionism. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2012.

__________. “Edward Said and Interfaith Attitudes of Christian Missionaries.” Expository Times 122, 12 (September 2011): 582-590.

__________. “Said’s Orientalism and Pentecostal Views of Islam in Palestine.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 36, 4 (October xx2012): 196-199.

Numark, Mitchell W. “Translating Dharma: Scottish Missionary-Orientalists and the Politics of Religious Understanding in Nineteenth-xxCentury Bombay.” Journal of Asian Studies 70, 2 (May 2011): 471-500.


Oddie, Geoffrey A. Imagined Hinduism: British Protestant Missionary Constructions of Hinduism, 1793–1900. New Delhi: Sage Publications, xx2006.

__________. “Long, Missionaries and Orientalism.” In Missionaries, Rebellion and Proto-Nationalism: James Long of Bengal. Richmond, Surrey, xxEngland: Curzon Press, 1999.

__________. "Missions and Museums, Hindu Gods and Other "Abominations,' 1820-1860." In Knowledge Production, Pedagogy, and xxInstitutions in Colonial India. Edited by Indra Sengupta and Daud Ali, 59-74. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

__________. "'Orientalism’ and British Protestant Missionary Constructions of India in the Nineteenth Century." South Asia: Journal of South xxAsian Studies 17, 2 (1994): 27-xx42.

Orr, Leslie C. “Orientalists, Missionaries and Jains: The South India Story.” In The Madras School of Orientalism: Producing Knowledge in xxColonial South India. Edited by Thomas R. Trautmann, 263-287. New Delhi : Oxford University Press, 2009.

Ouji, Leila Anna. "Aspects of Orientalism in Dante." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, 2015.


Pappé, Ilan. "Clusters of History: U.S. Involvement in the Palestine Question." In Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the xxPalestinians. Noam Chomsky and Ilan Pappé. Rev. ed., edited by Frank Barat. 29-64. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2013.

Pasto, James. "Islam's 'Strange Secret Sharer': Orientalism, Judaism, and the Jewish Question." Comparative Studies in Society and History 40, xx3 (July 1998): 437-474.

Pick, Lucy K. “Edward Said, Orientalism, and the Middle Ages.” Medieval Encounters 5, 3 (1999): 265-71.

__________. “Orientalism and Religion.” Unpublished paper, 2009. At Middle East Institute   xx(  Accessed 27 May 2019.

Powell, Avril Ann. Scottish Orientalists and India: the Muir Brothers, Religion, Education and Empire. Woodbridge, United Kingdom, and xxRochester, New York: Boydell Press, 2010.

Powell, Kathryn. "Orientalist Fantasy in the Poetic Dialogues of Solomon and Saturn." Anglo-Saxon England 34 (December 2005): 117-143.

Prasch, Thomas. “Which God for Africa: the Islamic-Christian Missionary Debate in Late-Victorian England.” Victorian Studies 33, 1 xx(Autumn 1989): 51-73.




Raponi, Danilo. Religion and Politics in the Risorgimento: Britain and the New Italy, 1861-1875. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, xx2014.

Ravindiran, V. “Discourses of Empowerment: Missionary Orientalism in the Development of Dravidian Nationalism." In Nation Work: xxAsian Elites and National Identities. Edited by Timothy Brook and Andre Schmid, 51-82. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan xxPress, 2000.

Roberts, Daniel Sanjiv. "From Indomania to Indophobia: Thomas DeQuincey's Providential Orientalism." In Literature for Our Times: xxPostcolonial Studies in the Twenty-First Century. Edited by Bill Ashcroft, Ranjini Mendis, Julie McGonegal, and Arun Mukherjee, 91-102. xxAmsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2012.

__________. “'Mix(ing) a Little with Alien Natures': Biblical Orientalism in De Quincy." In Thomas De Quincey: New Theoretical and Critical xxDirections. Edited by Robert Morrison and Daniel Sanjiv Roberts, 19-44. New York: Routledge, 2008.

Rubenstein, Murray. Missionary Orientalism and the Missionary Lens: Using Saidian Mode of Analysis to Read the Western Missionaries' Accounts xxof the Development of the Protestant Presence in Taiwan. Cambridge: Currents in World Christianity Project, 1998.

Runesson, Anna. Exegesis in the Making: Postcolonialism and New Testament Studies. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2010.

Ryan, Christopher. Schopenhauer's Philosophy of Religion: The Death of God and the Oriental Renaissance. Leuven and Walpole, Massachusetts: xxPeeters, 2010.


Said, Yazid. "Edward Said, Religion, and the Study of Islam: An Anglican View." Journal for the Academic Study of Religion 26, 2 (2013): 123-xx138.

Samuel, Simon. "A Post Colonial Reading of Mark's Story of Jesus." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Sheffield, 2002.

Sasson, J. M. "Albright as an Orientalist." Biblical Archaeologist 56,1 (March 1993): 3-7.

Schueller, Malini Johar. U.S. Orientalisms: Race, Nation, and Gender in Literature, 1790-1890. Ann Arbor, Michigan: University of Michigan xxPress, 1998.

Schumm, Darla Y. "Rethinking Christian Missions: Said's Orientalism and Christian Missionary Responses to Prostitution in xxThailand." Missiology: An International Review 36, 4 (October 2008): 475-489.

Sha'ban, Fuad. Islam and Arabs in Early American Thought: The Roots of Orientalism in America. Durham, North Carolina: Acorn Press, 1991.

Shaffer, Elinor S. 'Kubla Khan' and the Fall of Jerusalem: The Mythological School in Biblical Criticism and Secular Literature 1770-1880. xxCambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1980.

Shah, Prakash. "Sacerdotal Violence and the Caste System: The Long Shadow of Christian Orientalism." Journal of Contemporary Thought 41 xx(Summer 2015): 137-164.

Sivasundaram, Sujit. “’A Christian Benares’: Orientalism, Science and the Serampore Mission of Bengal.” Indian Economic and Social History xxReview 44, 2 (2007): 111-145.

__________. Nature and the Godly Empire: Science and Evangelical Mission in the Pacific, 1795-1850. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge xxUniversity Press, 2005.

Småberg, Maria. Ambivalent Friendship: Anglican Conflict Handling and Education for Peace in Jerusalem, 1920-1948. Lund: Lund University, xx2005.

Spanos, William V. "Edward W. Said and Zionism: Rethinking the Exodus Story." boundary 2 37, 1 (2010): 127-166.

Stiffler, Matthew. "Authentic Arabs, Authentic Christians: Antiochian Orthodox and the Mobilization of Cultural Identity." Ph.D. xxdissertation, University of Michigan, 2010.

__________. "Consuming Orientalism: Public Foodways of Arab American Christians." Mashriq & Mahjar 2, 2 (2014): 111-138.

Sugiratharajah, R. S. Asian Biblical Hermenuetics and Postcolonialism: Contesting Interpretations. Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, xx1998.

__________."Enduring Orientalism: Biblical Studies and the Repackaging of Colonial Practice." In Exploring Postcolonial Biblical Criticism: xxHistory, Method, Practice, 94-122. Chichester, England and Malden, Massachusetts: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012.

__________. "From Orientalist to Post-Colonial: Notes on Reading Practices." Asia Journal of Theology 10, 1 (April 1996): 20-27.

__________."Orientalism, Ethnonationalism and Transnationalism: Shifting Identities and Biblical Interpretation." In Ethnicity and the Bible. xxEdited by Mark G. Brett, 419-29. Boston and Leiden: Brill Academic Publishers, 2002.

Suonpää, Mika Petteri. "Anglican Images of Eastern Orthodoxy: The Balkan Case in a Wider Religious Context." In "British Perceptions of xxthe Balkan Slavs: Professional and Popular Categorizations before 1914," 41-87. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Hull, 2008.

Suter, Rebecca. “Orientalism, Self-Orientalism, and Occidentalism in the Visual-Verbal Medium of Japanese Girls’ Comics.” Literature & xxAesthetics 22, 2 (December 2012): xx230-247.

__________. Holy Ghosts: The Christian Century in Modern Japanese Fiction. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press, 2015.

Swain, Margaret Byrne. “Pére Vial and the Gni-p’a: Orientalist Scholarship and the Christian Project.” In Cultural Encounters on China’s xxEthnic Frontiers. Edited by Steven Harrell, 140-184. Seattle, Washington: University of Washington Press, 1995.

Swanson, Herbert R. "Said's Orientalism and the Study of Christian Missions." International Bulletin of Missionary Research 28, 3 (July 2004): xx107-112.  At (  Accessed 27 May 2019.

Sweetman, Will. "The Prehistory of Orientalism: Colonialism and the Textual Basis for Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg’s Account of xxHinduism’." New Zealand Journal of Asian Studies 6, 2 (December 2004): 12-38.



Tamcke, Martin, and Gladson Jathanna, eds. Construction of the Other, Identification of the Self: German Mission in India. Wein and Berlin: LIT xxVerlag, 2012.

Thatamanil, John J. "Ecstasy and Nonduality: On Comparing Varieties of Immanence," Journal of Hindu-Christian Studies 22, Article 8 xx(2009).

Tseng, Timothy. ""Beyond Orientalism and Assimilation: Towards an Asian American Identity." In Conversations: Asian American xxEvangelical Theologies in Formation. Edited by D. J. Chuang and Timothy Tseng. Washington D.C.: L2 Foundation, 2006.

__________."Second-Generation Chinese Evangelical Use of the Bible in Identity Discourse in North America.” Semeia 90/91 (2002): 251-xx267.

Trautmann, Thomas R. "The Mosaic Ethnology of Asiatick Jones." In Aryans and British India, 28-61. New Delhi: Yoda Press, 2004.

Twells, Alison A. “The Heathen at Home and Overseas: The Middle Class and the Civilising Mission, Sheffied 1790-1843.” Ph. D. xxdissertation, University of York, 1997.



Vaithees, V. Ravi. Religion, Caste, and Nation in South India: Maraimalai Adigal, the Neo-Saivite Movement, and Tamil Nationalism, 1876–1950. xxNew Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Vaitheespara, Ravindiran. "Caste, Hybridity and the Construction of Cultural Identity in Colonial India: Maraimalai Adigal and the xxIntellectual Genealogy of Dravidian Nationalism, 1800-1950." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, 1999.

__________. “Christianity, Missionary Orientalism, and the Origins of Tamil Modernity.” In Halle and the Beginning of Protestant xxChrtistianity in India. Vol. 2, Christian Mission in the Indian Context. Edited by Andreas Gross, Y. Vincent Kumaradoss, and Heike Liebau, xx973-1017. Halle, Germany: Franckesche Stifungen, 2006.

Varisco, Daniel Martin. "‘Orientalism and Bibliolatry: Framing the Holy Land in 19th Century Protestant Bible Customs Texts.” xxIn Orientalism Revisited: Land, Art and Voyage. Edited by Richard Netton, 187–204. London: Routledge, 2013.

Veltri, Giuseppe. “’The East’ in the Story of the Lost Tribes: Creation of Geographical and Political Utopias.” In Creation and Re-Creation in xxJewish Thought: Festschrift in Honor of Joseph Dan on the Occasion of his Seventieth Birthday. Edited by Rachael Elior and Peter Schäfer, 249-xx270. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck, 2005.

Visser, Liezel. “The Contextual Compass: A Literary-Historical Study of Three British Women’s Travel Writing on Africa, 1797-1934.” xxM.A. thesis, University of Stellenbosch, 2009.

Viswanathan, Gauri. "Religion and Dissent in Said's Secular Criticism." In Edward Said's Translocations: Essays in Secular Criticism. Edited by xxTobias Döring and Mark Stein, 44-55. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Voulgarakis, Evangelos. "Modern Orientalists: Buddhism in the Eyes of Modern Christians in the Context of Pluralism, Dialogue and xxCooperation Based on Social Action." Paper, presented to the CESNUR 2011 International Conference in Danshui, Taiwan, 21-23 June xx2011.


Walhout, Mark. "Edward Said: Secular Protestant." Books & Culture A Christian Review (September 2001).

Wang, Hui. "A Postcolonial Perspective on James Legge's Confucian Translation: Focusing on His Two Versions of the 'Zhongyong'." Ph.D. xxdissertation, Hong Kong Baptist University, 2007.

__________. Translating Chinese Classics in a Colonial Context: James Legge and His Two Versions of the Zhongyong. Bern and New York: Peter xxLang, 2008.

Ward, W. Peter. "The Oriental Immigrant and Canada's Protestant Clergy, 1855-1925." BC Studies: The British Columbian Quarterly 22 (1974): xx40-55.

Watkinson, Caroline. "English Convents in Eighteenth-Century Travel Literature." Studies in Church History 48 (January 2012): 219-231.

Weaver, Alain. “On Exile: Yoder, Said, and a Theology of Land and Return.” Crosscurrents 54, 4 (Winter 2003): 439-461.

Wilcox, Andrew. “Orientalism and Imperialism: Protestant Missionary Narratives of the 'Other' in Nineteenth and Early Twentieth xxCentury Kurdistan.” Ph.D. dissertation, University of Exeter, 2014.


Wilkinson, Robert J. Orientalism, Aramaic and Kabbalah in the Catholic Reformation: the First Printing of the Syriac New Testament. Leiden, the xxNetherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV, 2007.

__________. "Syriac Studies in Rome in the Second Half of the Sixteenth Century." Journal of Late Antique Religion and Culture 6 (2102): 55-xx74.

Willison, Rachel Beckles. "Music Teachers as Missionaries: Understanding Europe's Recent Dispatches to Ramallah." Ethnomusicology xxForum 20, 3 (2011): 301-325.

__________. Orientalism and Musical Mission: Palestine and the West. Cambridge: ‪Cambridge University Press, 2013.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Womack, Deanna Ferre. “Edward Said and the Orientalised Body: A Call for Missiological Engagement.” Swedish Missiological Themes 99, 4 xx(2011): 441–61.


Xavier, Ângela Barreto, and Ines G. Županov. Catholic Orientalism: Portuguese Empire, Indian Knowledge (16th-18th Centuries). New Delhi: xxOxford University Press, 2015.


Yang, Mayfair Mei-hui. “Postcoloniality and Religiosity in Modern China: The Disenchantments of Sovereignty.” Theory, Culture & xxSociety 28, 2 (March 2011): 3-45.


Yelle, Robert A. The Language of Disenchantment: Protestant Literalism and Colonial Discourse in British India. New York: Oxford University xxPress, 2012.

Young, Richard Fox. "Empire and Misinformation: Christianity and Colonial Knowledge from a South Indian Hindu Perspective (ca. xx1804)." In India and the Indianness of Christianity: Essays on Understanding, Historical, Theological, and Bibliographical, in Honor of Robert Eric xxFrykenberg. Edited by Richard Fox Young, 59-81. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans, 2009.

Yu, Lan. "Orientalism and Missionary Sinology, a Study of W. A. P. Martin." M.A. thesis, University of New Brunswick, 1998.

Yue, Isaac. "Missionaries (MIS-)Representing China: Orientalism, Religion, and the Conceptualization of Victorian Cultural xxIdentity." Victorian Literature and Culture, 37, xx(2009): 1-10.


Zein, M. Faruk. Christianity, Islam and Orientalism. London: Saqi, 2003.


Zonana, Joyce. "The Sultan and the Slave: Feminist Orientalism and the Structure of 'Jane Eyre'." Signs 18, 3 (Spring 1993): 592-617.

Županov, Ines G. “Conversion Historiography in South Asia: Alternative Indian Christian Counter-histories in Eighteenth Century Goa.” xxMedieval History Journal 12, 2 (July-December 2009): 303-325.

__________. Disputed Mission: Jesuit Experiments and Brahmanical Knowledge in Seventeenth-Century India. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2001.

__________. “Jesuit Orientalism: Correspondence Between Tomás Pereira and Fernãde Queiros.” In Tomás Pereira, S. J. (1646-1708), Life, xxWork and World. Edited by L. Barreto, 43-74. Lisbon, Centro Cultural e Cientifico de Macau, 2010.