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Christian Orientalism Bibliography

Last Updated: April 2021

This bibliography contains sources that have grown out of the decades long debate over Orientalism sparked primarily by the work of Edward W. Said. The sources here have specifically to do with "Christian Orientalism," that is the role of the Christian religion as a factor in Orientalism both in the West and in the rest of the world. Generally, only sources that are directly related to the subject of Christian Orientalism are included while sources concerned with such questions as the relationship of Christianity to imperialism are not unless they refer clearly and importantly to Orientalism. The bibliography was first posted online in October 2015.

Herb Swanson
October 2015


Abdul-Masih, Magi. “Orientalism in Christian Theology.” In Christians and the Middle East Conflict. Edited Paul S. Rowe, John H. A. Dyck and Jens Zimmermann, 44-52. New York: Routledge, 2014.

Akbari, Suzanne Conklin. Idols in the East: European Representations of Islam and the Orient, 1100–1450. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 2009.

Alun, David. "Sir William Jones, Biblical Orientalism and Indian Scholarship." Modern Asian Studies 30, 1 (February 1996): 173-184.

Andersen, Christoffer M. "Balkan Anti-Westernism, Orthodoxism and ‘Orientalism’: A legacy of the Ottoman Empire?" Unpublished paper, 2007.

Andersen, Peter B., and Susanne Foss. "Christian Missionaries and Orientalist Discourse: Illustrated by Materials on the Santals after 1855." In Christians and Missionaries in India: Cross-cultural Communication Since 1500, with Special Reference to Caste, Conversion, and Colonialism. Edited by Robert Eric Frykenberg and Alaine M. Low, 295-314. Grand Rapids, Michigan: W.B. Eerdmans, 2003.

App, Urs. The Birth of Orientalism: Encounters with Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2010.

__________. "William Jones’s Ancient Theology." Sino-Platonic Papers 191 (July, 2009).


Bagchee, Joydeep, and Vishwa P. Adluri. "The Passion of Paul Hacker: Indology, Orientalism, and Evangelism." In Transcultural Encounters Between Germany and India: Kindred Spirits in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries. Edited by Joanne Miyang Cho, Eric Kurlander, and Douglas T. McGetchin, 215-229. London and New York: Routledge, 2014.

Balagnangadhara, S. N. “Orientalism, Postcolonialism and the ‘Construction’ of Religion.” In Rethinking Religion in India. Edited by Esther Bloch, Marianne Keppens and Raharam Hegde, 216-262. London and New York: Routledge, 2010.

Barbour, John D. "The Ethics of Intercultural Travel: Thomas Merton's Asian Pilgrimage and Orientalism." Biography 28, 1 (Winter 2005): 15-26.

Bartelink, Brenda E. "Shifting Perspectives: Analyzing Discourses on Faith-Based Development Organisations in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS." In Political, Social and Religious Dimensions in the Fight Against HIV/AIDS: Negotiating Worldviews, Facing Practical Challenges. Edited by Brenda Bartelink and Ulla Pape,185-201.

Bartholomeusz, Tessa. “Spiritual Wealth and Neo-Orientalism.” Journal of Ecumenical Studies 35, 1 (Winter 1998), 19-32.

Bar-Yosef, Eitan. "'Green and Pleasant Lands': England and the Holy Land in Plebeian Millenarian Culture, c. 1790-1820." In A New Imperial History: Culture, Identity and Modernity in Britain and the Empire 1660-1840. Edited by Kathleen Wilson, 155-175. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

__________. The Holy Land in English Culture 1799-1917: Palestine and the Question of Orientalism. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.

Becker, Adam H. ‪Revival and Awakening: American Evangelical Missionaries in Iran and the Origins of Assyrian Nationalism. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2015.‬‬‬‬‬‬‬

Bellenoit, Hayden J. A. Missionary Education and Empire in Late Colonial India, 1860-1920. London and New York: Rutledge, 2007.

Bennett, Stephen. "Jerusalem as a City ‘Reclaimed’: Orientalism and Biblical Discourse in US Media 1948 and 1967." Jerusalem Quarterly 44 (Winter 2010): 75-91.

Bobrovnikov, Vladimir. "Applied Oriental Studies of Russia’s Own Islam: From Orthodox Missionaries to Militant Godless and Wahhabis."  Insight Turkey 20, 4 (Fall 2018): 249-272.

Boettcher, Susan R. “German Orientalism in the Age of Confessional Consolidation: Jacob Andreae's Thirteen Sermons on the Turk, 1568.” Comparative Studies of South Asia Africa and the Middle East 24, 2 (01/2004):101-115.

Brown, Stewart J. "William Robertson, Early Orientalism and the Historical Disquisition on India of 1791." Scottish Historical Review 88, 2 (October 2009): 289-312.

Borutta, Manuel. "Settembrini's World: German and Italian Anti-Catholicism in the Age of the Culture Wars." In European Anti-Catholicism in a Comparative and Transnational Perspective. Edited by Yvonne Maria Werner and Jonas Harvard, 43-70. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 2013.

Bulaç, Aií. “Church Orientalism.” At Today’s Azman (1 August 2010).

Bulman, William. Anglican Enlightenment: Orientalism, Religion and Politics in England and its Empire, 1648-1715. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015.


Cavalieratos, Alexander. “Encountering Palestine: Sweish Pilgrim-Tourists between Colonialism and the Bible.” In Encounters: Representations fo the Others in Modern European History. Edited by Madeleine Hurd, 91-132. Huddinge, Sweden: Södertörns högskola 2003.

Cassels, Nancy Gardner, ed. Orientalism, Evangelicalism, and the Military Cantonment in Early Nineteenth-Century India: A Historiographical Overview. Lewiston, New York: Edwin Mellen Press, 1991.

Cawsey, Kathy. “Disorienting Orientalisms: Finding Saracens in Strange Places in Late Medieval English Manuscripts.” Exemplaria 21, 4 (October 2009): 380-397.

Champion, Justin. "'I Remember a Mahometan Story of Ahmed ben Edris': Freethinking Uses of Islam from Stubbe to Toland." Al-Qanṭara 31, 2 (2010): 443-480.

Chan, Adrian. "Universalism and Ethnocentrism: Christianity, Chinese Culture and Sinology." In Orientalism in Sinology, 21-54. Palo Alto, California: Academic Press, LLC, 2010.

Clarke, J. J. Oriental Enlightenment: The Encounter Between Asian and Western Thought. London: Routledge, 1997.

Clooney, Francis X. "Vedânta, Theology, and Modernity: Theology's New Conversation With the World's Religions." Theological Studies 51, 2 (June 1990): 268-284.

Cole, Ann Louise.  "Becoming All Things to All Men: The Role of Jesuit Missions in Early Modern Globalization."  Ph.D. dissertation, University of Arkansas, 2015.

Constable, Philip. "Scottish Missionaries, 'Protestant Hinduism' and the Scottish Sense of Empire in Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century India." Scottish Historical Review 86, 222, Part 2 (October 2007): 278-313.

Corrado, Mark. "Orientalism in Reverse: Henry Corbin, Iranian Philosophy, and the Critique of the West." M.A. thesis, Simon Fraser Unviersity, 2004.

Cox, Jeffrey. “George Alfred Lefroy, 1854-1919: A Bishop in Search of a Church.”  In After the Victorians: Private Conscience and Public Duty in Modern Britain.  Edited by Susan Pedersen and Peter Mandler, 57-80.  London and New York: Routledge, 1994.

Cuéllar, Gregory L. Empire, the British Museum, and the Making of the Biblical Scholar in the Nineteenth Century. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2019.

Cummings, Alex. "Life in the Menagerie: David Crockett Graham and Missionary-Scientists in West China, 1911-1948." American Baptist Quarterly 27, 3 (Fall 2009): 206-227.

Curtis, Michael. Orientalism and Islam: European Thinkers on Oriental Despotism in the Middle East and India. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.


Dae-Kwang, Choi. "Reconstruction of Korean-Christian Experience in Post-Colonial Era." Madang: Journal of Contextual Theology 11 (June 2009): 59-74.

David, Alun. “Sir William Jones, Biblical Orientalism and Indian Scholarship.” Modern Asian Studies 30, 1 (February 1996): 173-184.

Davies, Jeremy. "Jewish Tunes, or Hebrew Melodies: Byron and the Biblical Orient." In Byron and Orientalism. Edited by Peter Cochran, 197-214. New Castle: Cambridge Scholars Press, 2006.


Dempsey, Corinne G. "The Suffering Indian Nun and the Wandering (Drunken) Irish Priest: Orientalism and Celticism Unplugged." In Bringing the Sacred Down to Earth: Adventures in Comparative Religion, 21-48. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.


Dobe, Timothy S. Hindu Chjristian Faqir: Modern Monks, Global Christianity, and Indian Sainthood. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.


Dodson, Michael S. Orientalism, Empire, and National Culture: India, 1770-1880. New Delhi: Foundation Books, 2011.


Dorman, Jacob S. "Lifted Out of the Commonplace Grandeur of Modern Times: Reappraising Edward Wilmot Blyden's Views of Islam and Afrocentrism in Light of His Scholarly Black Christian Orientalism." Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society 12, 4 x2010): 398-418.


__________. “’We are Israelites but Not Jews’: Orientalism and Israelism in the Holiness-Pentecostal Movement.” In Chosen People: The Rise of American Black Israelite Religions, 81-112. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.


Doyle, Sean. "Orientalism." In Synthesizing the Vedanta: The Theology of Pierre Johanns, S.J., 82-101. Oxford and New York: Peter Lang, 2006.


DuBois, Thomas David, ed. Casting Faiths: Imperialism and the Transformation of Religion in East and Southeast Asia. Basingstoke, England: Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.


Ellison, C. Bradford. “Imagining the Poor: The Discourse that Directs Western Intervention in Africa and Its Impact on the Condition of American Poverty.” Honors thesis, Duke University, 2016. [See Chapter Two]

Emanet, Celal. "An American Missionary to Islam: Samuel Marinus Zwemer." The Journal of Academic Social Science [Akademik Sosyal Araştırmalar Dergisi] 2, 1 (March 2014): 225-236.

Emerson, Tamara C. “Relating Transcendentally: New England Transcendentalism, U. S. Evangelicalism, and the Antebellum Orientalization of China.” Ph.D. dissertation, Wayne State University, 2008.


Fieldman, Jackie and Amos S. Ron. "American Holy Land: Orientalism, Disneyization, and the Evangelical Gaze." In Orient - Orientalistik - Orientalismus: Geschichte und Aktualität einer Debatte. Edited by Burkhard Schnepel, Gunnar Brands, and Hanne Schönig, 151-176. Bielefeld, Germany: transcript Verlag, 2011.

Fry, Michael. (2012) “’The Key to their Hearts’: Scottish Orientalism.” In Scotland and the 19th-Century World. Edited by Gerard Carruthers, David Goldie, and Alastair Renfrew, -157. Amsterdam and New York: Rodopi, 2012.


Ganim, John M. Medievalism and Orientalism: Three Essays on Literature, Architecture and Cultural Identity. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2005. [Biblical Orientalism]

Garcia, Humberto. "In the Name of the “Incestuous Mother”: Islam and Excremental Protestantism in De Quincey’s Infidel Book." Journal for Early Modern Cultural Studies 7, 2 (Fall/winter 2007): 57-87.

Gelders, Raf, and S. N. Balagnangadhara. "Rethinking Orientalism: Colonialism and the Study of Indian Traditions." History of Religions 51, 2 (Novebmer 2011): 101-128.

Ghorgopoulou, Maria. "Orientalism and Crusader Art: Constructing a New Caanon." Medieval Encounters 5, 3 (1999): 289 – 321.

Gill, Jagvinder. "Imran Ahmad–The Unimagined Return of Missionary Orientalism." In "Re-Oriented Britain–How British Asian Travellers and Settlers have Utilised and Reversed Orientalist Discourse 1770-2010," 338-354. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Warwick, 2010.

Girardot, Norman J. “The Victorian Text of Chinese Religion: With Special Reference to the Protestant Paradigm of James Legge's Religions of China.” Cahiers d'Extrême-

Asie 12 (2001): 23-57.

__________. The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge's Oriental Pilgrimage. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2002.

Goh, Robbie G. H. "Film-as-Maturion: Faith, Healing and “The Body” in Evangelical Orientalism." Material Religion: The Journal of Objects, Art and Belief 11, 4 (2015): 465-483.

Green, Nile. “Parnassus of the Evangelical Empire: Orientalism and the English Universities, 1800-50.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 40, 3 (September 2012): 337-355.

__________. "Parnassus of the Evangelical Empire." In Terrains of Exchange: Religious Economies of Global Islam, 43-65. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015.

Grafton, David D. "An Early American Orientalist Lutheran Perspective of Islam: Lewis Eichelberger and his Sources.” Journal of the Lutheran Historical Conference (2011).

__________. Piety, Politics, and Power: Lutherans Encountering Islam in the Middle East. Eugene Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2009.

Gualtieri, Antonio Roberto. "Hermeneutics of the Old and New Orientalism [Wilfred Cantwell Smith's Personalist Hermeneutic]." In The Contemporary Study of the Arab World. Edited by Earl L. Sullivan and Jacqueline S. Ismael, 51-61. Edmonton, Alberta: University of Alberta Press, 1991.

Guenther, Alan M. "The Image of the Prophet as Found in Missionary Writings of the Late Nineteenth Century." Muslim World 90, 1-2 (March 2000): 43-70.

Gunn, Geoffrey C. "Catholic Cosmologies." In First Globalization: The Eurasian Exchange, 1500 to 1800, 85-112. Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, 2003.

Guzik, Michael A. "Lux Occidentale: The Eastern Mission of the Pontifical Commission for Russia, Origins to 1933." Ph.D, dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 2017.


Haldar, Piyel. "Anglican Pleasures in the Orient: Staging the Rule of Law." In Law, Orientalism and Postcolonialism: The Jurisdiction of the Lotus-Eaters, 127-150. London and New York: Routledge, 2007.


Han, Kang-Hee. "Empires, Missions, and Education: Mission Schools and Resistance Movements in Modern Korea, 1885-1919." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh, 2013.

Hart, William D. Edward Said and the Religious Effects of Culture. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Hedges, Paul. “Post-Colonialism, Orientalism, and Understanding: Religious Studies and the Christian Missionary Imperative.” Journal of Religious History 32, 1 (March 2008): 55-75.

Hochberg, Gil Z. “’ Remembering Semitism’ or ‘On the Prospect of Re-Membering the Semites.’” ReOrient 1, 21 (Spring 2016): 192-223.

Holloway, Steven W., ed. Orientalism, Assyrialogy and the Bible. Sheffield, England: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2007.

Hopwood, Derek. "Albert Hourani: Islam, Christianity and Orientalism." British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 30, 2 (November 2003): 127-136.

Hubers, John. I Am a Pilgrim, a Traveler, a Stranger: Exploring the Life and Mind of the First American Missionary to the Middle East, the Rev. Pliny Fisk (1792-1825).  Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2016.

Hurd, Elizabeth Shakman. "Appropriating Islam: The Islamic Other in the Consolidation of Western Modernity." Critique: Critical Middle Eastern Studies 12, 1 (Spring 2003): xx25–41.



Ishimori, Daichai. "Disentangling Fundamentalism and Nativistic Movements: An Analysis of the Christian Fellowship Church in the Solomon Islands." People and Culture in Oceania 23 (2007): 33-52.


Jackson, Carl T. The Oriental Religions and American Thought: Nineteenth-Century Explorations. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1981.

Jacob, Anna. "Missionary Scholarship in Colonial India." In Engaging the University and Nation: A Christian Perspective. Edited by Jeremiah Amai Veino Duomai, 15-24. New Delhi: Primalogue Publishing Media, 2016.

Jerslid, Austin. "Orthodoxy: The Society for the Restoration of Orthodoxy in the Caucasus." In Orientalism and Empire: North Caucasus Mountain Peoples and the Georgian Frontier, 1845-1917, 38-58. Montreal and Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 2002.

Jivraj, Suhraiya, and Didi Herman. "'It is Difficult for a White Judge to Understand': Orientalism, Racialisation, and Christianity in English Child Welfare Cases." Child and Family Law Quarterly 21, 3 (2009): 283-308.

Johnson , Christopher D. L. “’He Has Made the Dry Bones Live’: Orientalism’s Attempted Resuscitation of Eastern Christianity.” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 82, 3 (September 2014):1-30.


Kahl, Brigitte. “Galatians and the ‘Orientalism’ of Justification by Faith: Paul among Jews and Muslims.” In The Colonized Apostle: Paul through Postcolonial Eyes. Edited by Christopher Stanley, 206-222. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2011.

Kalmar, Ivan. "Anti-Semitism and Islamophobia: The Formation of a Secret." Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge 7, 2 (Spring 2009): 135-144.

__________. “Arabizing the Bible: Racial Supersessionism in Nineteenth Century Christian Art and Biblical Criticism.” In Orientalism Revisited: Land, Art and Voyage. Edited by Richard Netton, 176-186. London: Routledge, 2013.

__________. Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the Notion of Sublime Power. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.

__________. “Jesus Did Not Wear a Turban: Orientalism, the Jews, and Christian Art." In Orientalism and the Jews. Edited by Ivan Kalmar and Derek J. Penslar, 3-31. Waltham, Massachusetts: Brandeis University Press, 2005.

__________. “The Jew and the Odalisque: Two Tropes Lost on the Way from Classic Orientalism to Islamophobia." ReOrient: The Journal of Critical Muslim Studies 4, 2 (Spring 2014): 181-196.

__________. “Jews and Muslims, Imagined Together: Bible, Orientalism, and Race in the Long Nineteenth Century." At ( Accessed 11 April 2017.

__________. “Jews in Turbans: Orientalism, Christianity, and Western Art," n.d. Unpublished paper. At Computing in the Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts & Science, University of Toronto ( Accessed 29 July 2017.

__________. “Orientalism and the Bible.” In Orientalism and Literature. Edited by Geoffrey P. Nash, 133-148. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2019.


Kamel, Lorenzo. “The Impact of ‘Biblical Orientalism' in Late Nineteenth- and Early Twentieth-Century Palestine.” New Middle Eastern Studies 4 (2014). At BRISMES: British Society for Middle Eastern Studies. ( Accessed 28 May 2016.

Kang, Namsoon. "Who/What is Asian? A Postcolonial Theological Reading of Orientalism and Neo-Orientalism." in Postcolonial Theologies: Divinity and Empire. Edited by Catherine Keller, Michael Nausner, and Mayra Rivera, 100-117. St. Louis, Missouri: Chalice Press, 2004.

Ketelaar, James E. "Strategic Occidentalism: Meiji Buddhists at the World's Parliament of Religions." Buddhist-Christian Studies 11 (1991): 37-56.

Khalaf, Samir. Cultural Resistance: Global and Local Encounters in the Middle East. London: Saqi Books, 2001.

__________. “Protestant Images of Islam: Disparaging Stereotypes Reconfirmed.” Islam and Christian-Muslim Relations 8, 2 (1997): 211-229.

__________. Protestant Missionaries in the Levant: Ungodly Puritans, 1820-1860. London, New York: Routledge, 2012.

Kim, Nami. "Engaging Afro/Black-Orientalism: A Proposal." Journal of Race, Ethnicity, and Religion 1, 7 (June 2010).

King, Richard. “Orientalism and the Modern Myth of ‘Hinduism’.” Numen 46, 2 (1999): 146-185.

__________. Orientalism and Religion: Postcolonial Theory, India and “the Mystic East”. London and New York: Routledge, 1999.

Kinoshita, Sharon. "'Pagans are Wrong and Christians are Right': Alterity, Gender, and Nation in the Chanson de Roland." Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 31, 1 (Winter 2001): 79-111.

Klassen, Pamela E. "Ritual Appropriation and Appropriate Ritual: Christian Healing and Adaptations of Asian Religions." History and Anthropology 16, 3 (September 2005): 377–391.

Koo, Dong Yun. The Holy Spirit and Ch'i (Qi): A Chiological Approach to Pneumatology. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2012.

Kopf, David. British Orientalism and the Bengal Renaissance: The Dynamics of Indian Modernization, 1773-1835. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 1969.


Laffan, Michael. The Makings of Indonesian Islam: Orientalism and the Narration of a Sufi Past. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2011.

Larocque, Emily. "Translating Representations: Orientalism in the Colonial Indian Province of Bengal (1770s-1830s)." Constellations 3,1 (2012): 31-39.

Ledger-Lomas, Michael. “Conder and Sons: Dissent and the Oriental Bible in Nineteenth-Century Britain.” In Dissent and the Bible in Britain, 1650-1950. Edited by Scott Mandelbrote and Michael Ledger-Lomas, 205-232. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013.

Lehmann, James H. "The Vicar of Wakefield: Goldsmith's Sublime, Oriental Job." ELH 46, 1 (Spring, 1979): 97-121.

Leong, Karen J. The China Mystique: Pearl S. Buck, Anna May Wong, Mayling Soong, and the Transformation of American Orientalism. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2005.

Levitt, Stephan Hillyer . “A Note on Early American Orientalism: Two Thai Manuscripts in the Collection of the University Museum of the University of Pennsylvania.” Crossroads: An Interdisciplinary Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 5, 1, Special Thai Issue (Part Two) (1990): 85-89.

Liebelt, Claudia. "On Sentimental Orientalists, Christian Zionists, and Working Class Cosmopolitans: Filipina Domestic Workers’ Journeys to Israel and Beyond." Critical Asian Studies 40, 4 (2008): 567-585.

Lim, Walter S. H. "John Milton, Orientalism, and the Empires of the East in Paradise Lost." In The English Renaissance, Orientalism, and the Idea of Asia. Edited by Debra Johanyak and Walter S. H. Lim, 203-236. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2010.

__________. John Milton, Radical Politics, and Biblical Republicanism. Newark, Delaware: University of Delaware Press, 2006.

Lipton, Diana.  "Egypt-Watching: Orientalism in the Hebrew Bible."  In Interested Readers: Essays on the Hebrew Bible in Honor of David J. A. Clines.  Edited by James K. Aitken, Jeremy M. S. Clines, and Christi M. Maier, 121-136.  Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature, [2013].

Locke, Ralph P. "Constructing the Oriental 'Other': Saint-Saens's "Samson et Dalila". Cambridge Opera Journal 3, 3 (November 1991): 261-302.

Lockman, Zachary. Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Lorenzen, David N. “Marco della Tomba and the Brahmin from Banaras: Missionaries, Orientalists, and Indian Scholars.” Journal of Asian Studies 65, 1 (February 2006): 115-143.

Louthan, Timothy. "Champion of Syria, Revisionist Historian of Islam: The Jesuit Orientalist Henri Lammens (1862-1937)." B.A. thesis, Kendrick K. Kelly Program, Davidson College, 2015.


MacLeod, Alex. "Can Any Good Thing Come Out Of Palestine? Orientalism and Eastern Christianity in Protestant Writings about the Holy Land, 1839-1908." Historical Papers: Canadian Society of Church History (2006): 39-54.

Makdisi, Ussama. Artillery of Heaven: American Missionaries and the Failed Conversion of the Middle East. Ithaca, New York and London: Cornell University Press, 2008.

Mallampalli, Chandra. "The Orientalist Framework of Christian Conversion in India: Three Venues of 'Inducement' from Colonial Times to the Present." In Relocating World Christianity: Interdisciplinary Studies in Universal and Local Expressions of the Christian Faith
Edited by Joel Cabria, David Maxwell, and Emma Wild-Wood, 162-186.  Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2017.

Mansour, Opher Nissim. "Islam, Orientalism and Diplomacy in the Decoration of the Early-Modern Papal Audience Chamber, 1492-1622." Paper presented to the conference on Splendid Encounters I: Diplomats and Diplomacy in Europe, 1500-1750, Warsaw, 20-21 September 2013.

Marandi, Seyyed Mohammad, and Hossein Pirnajmuddin. "'Imaginative Geography': Orientalist Discourse in Paradise Lost." Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji 56, Special Issue, English (Spring 2010): 181-196.

Marchand, Suzanne L. "German Orientalism and the Decline of the West." Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 145, 4 (December 2001): 465-473.

__________. “Toward an Oriental Christianity." In German Orientalism in the Age of Empire: Religion, Race, and Scholarship, 252-291. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Marr, Timothy. "'Drying Up the Euphrates': Muslims, Millennialism, and Early American Missionary Enterprise." In The Cultural Roots of American Islamicism, 82-133. Cambridge and New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

McCabe, Baghdiantz. Orientalism in Early Modern France: Eurasian Trade, Exoticism, and the Ancien Régime. Oxford and New York: Berg, 2008.

McMylor, Peter, and Maria Vorozhishcheva. "Sociology and Eastern Orthodoxy." In The Blackwell Companion to Eastern Christianity. Edited by Kenneth Perry, 462-479. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2010.

Mellor, Philip A. "Orientalism, Representation, and Religion: the Reality Behind the Myth." Religion 34, 2 (April 2004): 99-112.

Michelson, David A. "Mixed Up by Time and Chance? Using Digital Media to 'Re-Orient' the Syriac Religious Literature of Late Antiquity." Journal of Religion, Media and Digital Culture 5, 1 (2016): 136-182.

Millar, Ashley E. "The Jesuits as Knowledge Brokers Between Europe and China (1582-1773): Shaping European Views of the Middle Kingdom." Unpublished paper. Economic History Working Papers, 105/07. Department of Economic History, London School of Economics and Political Science. London, 2007.

Milman, Henry Hart. "Christianity and Orientalism." In The History of Christianity from the Birth of Christ to the Abolition of Paganism in the Roman Empire, vol. 2, 34,90. New York: A. C. Armstrong and Son, 1887.

Molendijk, Arie L. (2000) “At the Cross-Roads: Early Dutch Science of Religion in International Perspective.” In Man, Meaning, & History. Hundred Years of History of Religions in Norway. The Heritage of W. Brede Kristensen. Edited by Sigurd Hjelde, 19-56. Leiden: Brill, 2000.

Moore, Brenna. “Religious Difference and ‘The Human Spirit': French Catholic Orientalism after Secularism.” A paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Catholic Historical Association in January 2015.

Murre-van den Berg, Heleen. New Faith in Ancient Lands: Western Missions in the Middle East in the Nineteenth and Early Twentienth Centuries. Leiden and Boston: Brill, 2006.


Nelson, Alissa Jones. Power and Responsibility in Biblical Interpretation: Reading the Book of Job with Edward Said. London and New York: Routledge, 2012.

Newberg, Eric Nelson. The Pentecostal Mission in Palestine: The Legacy of Pentecostal Zionism. Eugene, Oregon: Pickwick Publications, 2012.

__________. “Edward Said and Interfaith Attitudes of Christian Missionaries.” Expository Times 122, 12 (September 2011): 582-590.

__________. “Said’s Orientalism and Pentecostal Views of Islam in Palestine.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 36, 4 (October 2012): 196-199.

Numark, Mitchell W. “Translating Dharma: Scottish Missionary-Orientalists and the Politics of Religious Understanding in Nineteenth-Century Bombay.” Journal of Asian Studies 70, 2 (May 2011): 471-500.


Oddie, Geoffrey A. Imagined Hinduism: British Protestant Missionary Constructions of Hinduism, 1793–1900. New Delhi: Sage Publications, 2006.

__________. “Long, Missionaries and Orientalism.” In Missionaries, Rebellion and Proto-Nationalism: James Long of Bengal. Richmond, Surrey, England: Curzon Press, 1999.

__________. "Missions and Museums, Hindu Gods and Other "Abominations,' 1820-1860." In Knowledge Production, Pedagogy, and Institutions in Colonial India. Edited by Indra Sengupta and Daud Ali, 59-74. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

__________. "'Orientalism’ and British Protestant Missionary Constructions of India in the Nineteenth Century." South Asia: Journal of South xxAsian Studies 17, 2 (1994): 27-xx42.

Orr, Leslie C. “Orientalists, Missionaries and Jains: The South India Story.” In The Madras School of Orientalism: Producing Knowledge in Colonial South India. Edited by Thomas R. Trautmann, 263-287. New Delhi : Oxford University Press, 2009.

Ouji, Leila Anna. "Aspects of Orientalism in Dante." Ph.D. dissertation, University of Toronto, 2015.


Pappé, Ilan. "Clusters of History: U.S. Involvement in the Palestine Question." In Gaza in Crisis: Reflections on Israel's War Against the Palestinians. Noam Chomsky and Ilan Pappé. Rev. ed., edited by Frank Barat. 29-64. Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2013.

Pasto, James. "Islam's 'Strange Secret Sharer': Orientalism, Judaism, and the Jewish Question." Comparative Studies in Society and History 40, 3 (July 1998): 437-474.

Pick, Lucy K. “Edward Said, Orientalism, and the Middle Ages.” Medieval Encounters 5, 3 (1999): 265-71.

__________. “Orientalism and Religion.” Unpublished paper, 2009. At Middle East Institute   (  Accessed 27 May 2019.

Powell, Avril Ann. Scottish Orientalists and India: the Muir Brothers, Religion, Education and Empire. Woodbridge, United Kingdom, and Rochester, New York: Boydell Press, 2010.

Powell, Kathryn. "Orientalist Fantasy in the Poetic Dialogues of Solomon and Saturn." Anglo-Saxon England 34 (December 2005): 117-143.

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