Glossary of Orientalisms

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Note:  in the text of each entry, users will find terms for Orientalisms sometimes highlighted in bold and sometimes highlighted in italics.  Bold Orientalisms (e.g. Aboriginal Orientalism) refer to main entries in this glossary.  Italicized Orientalisms (e.g. Afro Orientalism) do not have their own entry but are referred to in an another entry, which is indicated by a "See" entry (e.g. Afro Orientalism. See Black Orientalism).

 

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Early Orientalism

Scholars use this term, in general, to describe the initial historical stages or periods of Orientalism itself, dated variously anywhere from the beginning of the late 15th century to the 17th or 18th centuries. There is, however, no standard periodisation for the study of Orientalism—different scholars using different schemes—meaning especially that the distinction between early Orientalism and early modern Orientalism as well as between early Orientalism and Renaissance Orientalism and Enlightenment Orientalism is not clear.  Some scholars argue that the period of early Orientalism was a period when Western Orientalist views of Asia were becoming more ideological and imaginative.  Early Orientalism, in any event, is usually seen as ending in the early 19th century, and it is linked to, again depending on the scholar, cultural changes such as the Enlightenment or the emergence of science. While sometimes this term is used similarly to the terms nascent Orientalism and proto-Orientalism, those terms focus more on that which anticipated or foreshadowed the emergence of Orientalism rather than being historical stages of Orientalism itself. The term incipient Orientalism is often used as a synonym for early Orientalism.

See also: Amateur Orientalism, Christian Orientalism, Early Modern Orientalism, Medieval Orientalism, Proto-Orientalism, Renaissance Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Carol A. Breckenridge & Peter van der Veer, “Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament.” In Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia (Pennsylvania, 1993); Adam Geczy, Fashion and Orientalism: Dress, Textiles and Culture from the 17th to the 21st Century (Bloomsbury, 2013); Edmund Robert Goode, “East of New England: Reorienting the Early Writings of Ralph Waldo Emerson and Henry David Thoreau” (Ph.D. diss., Cornell, 2010); Ivan D. Kalmar, Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the Notion of Sublime Power (Routledge, 2012); Baghdiantz McCabe, Orientalism in Early Modern France: Eurasian Trade, Exoticism, and the Ancien Régime (Berg, 2008).

Early Modern Orientalism

Scholars use this term to describe the ways in which European Orientalism from roughly the 15th/16th through the 17th/early 18th centuries laid the ground work for modern Orientalism and yet still differed from it in important ways—the degree of similarity and difference depending on the scholar and on the particular nation of Europe being considered (e.g. Spain or England). Scholars generally see it as being similar to modern Orientalism in that (Western) Europe considered the Orient, that is the Ottoman Empire, to be essentially different from and inferior to Christian Europe; and in a carry over from medieval fear of and disdain for Islam, the "infidel Turk" was considered to be by their very nature crafty, cruel, immoral, and damned by God. However, scholars also argue that early modern Orientalism differed from modern Orientalism in several ways, including: (1) the geographical extent of "Orientalism" was limited primarily to the Ottoman Empire and the definition of what exactly was "Oriental" was less clear; (2) Christian thinking and the Bible were still more central to European attitudes; yet, (3) attitudes toward the Ottoman Empire were more ambivalent and the sense of it being a radically different "Other" was less intense; (4) the "Orient" was more powerful, and Europe did not dominate it nor was European colonialism or imperialism involved; and (5) the institutional academic establishment of scholars, schools, and publications that was a hall mark of the modern era was not yet in place. In sum, scholars argue that the Orientalisms of the Renaissance and Enlightenment eras were more ambivalent toward the Ottoman Empire than would later be the case and sometimes more willing to explore similarities with rather than absolute differences from the (Oriental) Other. Yet, the general consensus seems to be that early modern Orientalism laid the fundamental bedrock of modern Orientalism in its treatment of the Ottomans as being essentially Other and inherently inferior. It should be noted, however that there is no standard periodization for the study of Orientalism—different scholars using different schemes—meaning that the chronological distinction between early modern Orientalism and early Orientalism as well as Renaissance Orientalism and Enlightenment Orientalism is not clear.

See also:Amateur Orientalism, Early Orientalism, Enlightenment Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Modern Orientalism, Renaissance Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Michael Andrew Gonzales,“The Shaping of Empire: History Writing and Imperial Identity in Early Modern Spain” (Ph.D. diss., Berkeley, 2013); James Knowles, “’The Faction of the Flesh’: Orientalism and the Caroline Masque.” In The 1630s: Interdisciplinary Essays on Culture and Politics in the Caroline Era (Manchester, 2006); Michéle Longino, Orientalism in French Classical Drama (Cambridge, 2002); Heather Madar,"Between Saracen Princess and Odalisque: Renaissance Representations of Ottoman Women" (Paper, Renaissance Society of America Annual Meeting, 2011); Fahd Al-Olaqi, “The ‘Idol’ of Prophet Muhammad in Greene’s Alphonsus.” Journal of English Language and Literature 6 (2016); Daniel Vitkus, Turning Turk: English Theater and the Multicultural Mediterranean (Palgrave Macmillan, 2003).

Eastern Orientalism

Scholars use this term, first used apparently by Sheldon Pollock (1993), in at least three different ways.  First and most often, they use it, as Pollock did, to describe Asian forms of ideological Orientalisms, which draw on both indigenous and Western sources and are used by Asians to construct identities both for themselves and for other Asians.  Rachel MagShambráin (2009), thus, uses this term to describe how the Ottoman Turks both encouraged Europeans to imagine the Turks in positive, idealistic ways useful to the Turks themselves and to stereotype Armenians in negative, demeaning ways also useful to the Turks.  This first usage is very similar to scholarly uses of the term Oriental OrientalismSecond and less often, other scholars use this term to refer to ways in which Edward W. Said (1978) and many other scholars of Orientalism understand the notion of Orientalism as being a Western colonialist and imperialistic ideology that imagines and constructs “Orientals” as having exotic, essential, virtually timeless identities inferior to the West.  In this usage, “Eastern Orientalism” is thus a synonym for Saidian OrientalismThird and least often, a few scholars use this term to describe artistic styles that are associated with “the Orient”.  It should be noted that scholars usually use this term in passing and, at times, it is difficult to discern which meaning is intended.  [9/19]

See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Oriental Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.

Sources & Example: First Meaning: Hanan Hammad, "From Orientalism to Khomeinism: A Century of Persian Studies in Egypt." Alif 35 (2015); Ying-Wei Tiffany Sung, “Turandot’s Homecoming: Seeking the Authentic Princess of China in a New Contest of Riddles” (M.Mus. thesis, Bowling Green State, 2010); K. Kasiyan, “Questioning Western Character Hegemony in Indonesian Aesthetic Books.” In Character Education for 21st Century Global Citizens… (Routledge, 2018); Sheldon Pollock, “Deep Orientalism? Notes on Sanskrit and Power beyond the Raj.” In Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia (U. of Pennsylvania, 1993); Rachel MagShambráin, “Displacing Orientalism: Ottoman Jihad, German Imperialism, and the Armenian Genocide.” In Encounters with Islam in German Literature and Culture (Camden House, 2009).  Second Meaning: James Smalls, “Menace at the Portal: Masculine Desire and the Homoerotics of Orientalism.” In Orientalism, Eroticism and Modern Visuality in Global Cultures (Routledge, 2016); Tarek Ladjal & Mohd R. M. Nor, "Terrorism Accusation as a Phase in Conflict of Civilizations: A Reading of The Evolution of Islamic Violence in the Western Mind." World Journal of Islamic History and Civilization 4 (2014); Janusz Korek, “Central and Eastern Europe from a Postcolonial Perspective.” At Postcolonial Europe (www.postcolonial-europe.eu), accessed 9/19.  Third Usage: Sengupta, “The Renaissance Man—Satyajit Ray,” 2013. At Finesse (http://finesseiima.weebly.com), accessed 9/19; Lindsey Treweek, "The Legacy of Ballets Russes and Nijinsky’s Interpretation of Debussy and Stravinsky,” 2014. At Academia (www.academia.edu), accessed 9/19.

Eclectic Orientalism

The scholarly use of this term goes back to at least the earlier 20th century, and until roughly the 1990s it was used by scholars to describe Western schools of thought, such as Theosophy, that combined supposedly Eastern ideas with their thinking.  Stuart Hall (1969) thus describes the American hippie movement of the 1960s as representing an “eclectic Orientalism” that drew on Asian scriptures, mysticism, religion, and music.  Very rarely, a modern-day scholar still uses this term in this sense.  Since the 1990s, however, scholars have usually used both this term and the term Orientalist eclecticism to describe artistic and decorative styles (including architecture, interior design, fashion design, literature, and painting among others) that combine elements of Asian and Western styles, into one work.  These combinations often include a number of different Asian styles.  The Royal Pavilion, Brighton, England, is frequently cited as an example of “eclectic Orientalism,” and Ottoman public architecture represents a particular form of “Orientalist eclecticism”.  Allyson McDermott (2015) argues that eclectic Orientalism in interior design began with London’s Crace family firm of interior decorators, including Frederick Crace (1779-1859) and John Gregory Crace (1809-1889).  [9/19]

See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Architectural Orientalism, Fashion Orientalism, Philosophical Orientalism, Seaside Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Eclectic Orientalism: Sigal Davidi, “Dora Gad 1912-2003,” 2009. At Jewish Women’s Archive (https://jwa.org), accessed 9/19; Rachel Fensham, “Designing for Movement: Dance Costumes, Arch Schools and Natural Movement in the Early Twentieth Century.” Journal of Design History 28 (2015); Stuart Hall, “The Hippies: An American ‘Moment’” (Birmingham Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, 1968); Bilge Imamoglu, “Architectural Production in State Offices: An Inquiry into the Professionalization of Architecture in Early Republican Turkey” (M.A. thesis, Middle E. Technical U., 2010); Freddy Kahana, Neither Village Nor City (eBookIt.com, 2015); John M. MacKenzie, Orientalism: History, Theory and the Arts (Manchester U., 1995); E. H. McCormick, An Absurd Ambition: Autobiographical Writings (Aukland U., 2013); Allyson McDermott, “Historic Wallpaper.” Journal of Building Survey, Appraisal & Valuation 4 (2015); Sheila Walsh, “Pragmatic Utopia and Romantic Science: Colonial Identities and Saint-Simonian Influences in the Writings of Thomas Ismaÿl Urbain (1812-1884) and Henri Duveyrier (1840-1892).” (Ph.D. diss., National U. of Ireland, Galway, 2013); Nicholas Wordsworth, “On the Edge of Africa,” 2008. At Financial Times (https://www.ft.com), accessed 9/19.  Orientalist Eclecticism:  Valerie Kennedy, “Orientalism in the Victorian Era,” 2017. At Oxford Research Encyclopedias (https://oxfordre.com), accessed 9/19; Mary Roberts, “Artists, Amateurs, and the Pleated Time of Ottoman Modernity.” In Time in the History of Art: Temporality, Chronology and Anachrony (Routledge, 2018); Mehmet B. Tanman, “Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Funerary Architecture: From Innovation to Eclecticism.” In Islamic Art in the 19th Century: Tradition, Innovation, and Eclecticism (Brill, 2006).

Economic Orientalism

Scholars generally use this term and the term Orientalist economics to describe the ways in which “Oriental” economic activities, structures, and institutions are imagined and constructed to be essentially different from the West. Although scholars use both of these terms fairly frequently, the relationship of the notion of Orientalism to economic thought and behavior has received somewhat limited study; and that work which has been done has largely been carried out in the context of Edward W. Said’s claim (in Orientalism, 1978) that Western economic thought and behavior is rooted in the pervasive, fundamental impact of Western ideological Orientalism. In the 19th century, thus, it was believed that Asian economies were at once wealthy and decadent. They were imagined to be backward, stagnant, wasteful, and dominated by effeminate rulers, which meant that they were the very opposite of Western economies. They, in fact, required Western assistance to save them from their economic plight, which assistance often came in the form of European colonialism. More recently, Orientalist commentators stereotype Asian economies as being driven, in important part, by inherently Asian sociocultural factors such as client-patron relationships and family-centered businesses. Some believe that those economies are hampered by their archaic, “quaint” natures, and commentators usually assume (openly or more covertly) that Western economic practices are more disciplined, motivated, and effective in comparison. Other commentators, however, argue that Asian economies are by their very nature superior in some ways to those of the rest of the world. A very few scholars use the terms Market Orientalism and Financial Orientalism to describe this same phenomena of economic Orientalism.  [revised 1/19]

See also: Commercial Orientalism, Consumer Orientalism, Crony Capitalism, Franchised Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Marxist Orientalism, Neoliberal Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Transorientalism, Wacky Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Gerard Cohen-Vrignaud, Radical Orientalism: Rights, Reform, and Romanticism( Cambridge, 2015); Stephen F. Dale, Indian Merchants and Eurasian Trade, 1600-1750 (Cambridge, 1994); John R. Eperjesi, The Imperialist Imaginary: Visions of Asia and the Pacific in American Culture (Dartmouth, 2005); Susan Greenhaigh, “De-Orientalizing the Chinese Family Firm.” American Ethnologist 21 (1994); Pavan K. Malreddy, "Introduction: Orientalism(s) after 9/11." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48 (2012); Nancy M. Mason, "The Ideology of American Home Economists in China between the 1920s and the 1940s: Interactions between Orientalism and Ideals of Domestic Science." Proceedings of the National Conference of Undergraduate Research 2015 (Eastern Washington U., 2015); Carina Ren & Can-Seng Ooi, "Auto-Communicating Micro-Orientalism: Articulating ‘Denmark’ in China at the Shanghai Expo." Asia Europe Journal 11 (2013); Edward W. Said, Orientalism (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978); Benjamin Smith, Market Orientalism: Cultural Economy and the Arab Gulf States (Syracuse, 2015); Gordon White & Roger Goodman, “Welfare Orientalism and the Search for an East Asian Welfare Model.” In The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State (Routledge, 1998); Abdallah Zouache, "Islam, Institutions, Development, and the Mistakes of Orientalist Economics," 2016. At CRESPPA (www.cresppa.cnrs.fr), accessed 1/19.

Electronic Orientalism

Scholars use this relatively infrequently used term usually in one of at least two ways.  First and more generally, they use it to describe the ways in which modern computerized communications media continue to convey ideological images and constructions of Asians as having an essential nature that is assumed to be inferior to the West.  Second and less frequently, a few scholars use this term to describe computer-related music that draws on Oriental elements.  [4/18]

See also: Cybernetic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Musical Orientalism, Techno-Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Koushik Banerjea & Jatinder Barn, “Versioning Terror: Jallianwala Bagh and the Jungle.”  In Inventing Rhythms: The Politics of the New Asian Dance Music (Zed Books, 1996); Arndt Graf, “Electronic Orientalism? The Afterlife of Syed Hussein Alatas’ ‘The Myth of the Lazy Native’ in Electronic Databases.” New Media and Society 12 (2010); Les Levidov, “The Paranoid Rationality of the Gulf Massacre,” n.d. At Ars Electronica Archives (http://archive.aec.at), accessed 4/18.

Elite Orientalism. See Classical Orientalism.

Emergent Orientalism

Scholars use this seldom-used term in one of two ways: first, to describe the earliest stages of European ideological Orientalist discourses; and, second, to describe the pre-Orientalist sources or roots of such discourses.

See also: Early Orientalism, Proto-Orientalism, Romantic Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Richmond Barbour, Before Orientalism: London's Theatre of the East, 1576-1626 (Cambridge, 2003); Seyyed Mohammad Marandi, "'Imaginative Geography': Orientalist Discourse in Paradise Lost." Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji 56 (2010); Harry Oldmeadow, Journeys East: 20th Century Western Encounters with Eastern Religious Traditions (World Wisdom, 2004).

Empathetic Orientalism. See Sympathetic Orientalism.

Enlightened Orientalism

For the most part, scholars use this term to refer to Enlightenment Orientalism, but a few use it in passing simply to mean an Orientalism that is insightful, knowledgeable, and open-minded. This general usage goes back to the 19th and early 20th centuries when this term was used by writers who reflected the worldview of traditional Orientalism. They used it to describe an "enlightened" form of Oriental thinking and behavior that stood in contrast to the supposedly backward, uneducated, and morally impoverished Orientalism of the East.  [5/17]

See also: Enlightenment Orientalism, Orientalist Enlightenment, Traditional Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Ali M. Aliabadi, “Anti-Islamic book,” 2004. Letter, at Narkive (http://narkive.com), accessed 5/ 2017; [Franz] Bopp, “A Comparative Grammar…” Translated by “Professor Wilson”. The Calcutta Review 11-12 (1849); Deepa Kumar, “"Framing Islam: Media Constructions of the Middle East Post-9/11 (Top Paper),"  2008. At allacademic research (www.allacademic.com)., accessed 5/17; Anthony Pagden, Worlds at War: The 2,500-Year Struggle Between East and West (Random House, 2008).

Enlightenment Orientalism

Scholars use this term to describe the ways in which Enlightenment Era Europeans imagined and constructed the Orient. While the term itself is fairly frequently used, there has been relatively little attention devoted to Orientalism in the 18th century Enlightenment, and much of the scholarship on this subject tends to look at it through the lens of 19th century Orientalism and the work of Edward W. Said. This relatively small field, in fact, is somewhat dominated by Srivivas Aravamudan's book, Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel (2012), and the majority of the scholarly references to Enlightenment Orientalism are to this book, which looks at its subject through the prism of 18th century Orientalist fiction. Aravamudan concludes that Enlightenment Orientalism was a complex phenomenon that differed from the Orientalism of the 19th century in that it was less ideological, not tied to European colonialism nor invested in world domination, more ambivalent in its attitudes about the East, and less ideologically dualistic. He argues that one cannot, thus, read from Said's notion of 19th century Orientalism back to the Enlightenment. Other scholars, however, find that Enlightenment era Orientalists did frequently imagine and construct the Orient, including especially the Ottoman Empire, as being essentially and irredeemably exotic, inferior, cruel, erotic, and degenerate. They thus see clearer connections between later Orientalisms and those of the Enlightenment. Infrequently, a few scholars use the terms Enlightened Orientalism or Orientalist Enlightenment similarly to this term.  [revised 4/18]

See also: Critical Orientalism, Early Orientalism, Early Modern Orientalism, Enlightened Orientalism, Kantian Orientalism, Literary Orientalism, Philo-Orientalism, Philosophical Orientalism, Pre-modern Orientalism, Proto-Orientalism, Scottish Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Srinivas Aravamudan, Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel (U. of Chicago, 2012); Katherine Binhammer, et. al., “Srinivas Aravamudan’s Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel: A Roundtable Discussion."Lumen 33 (2014); Edmund Burke III, “Collective Action, Discursive Shifts: A Comparative Historical Perspective.” American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences, 24 (1998); Matthew William Head, Orientalism, Masquerade and Mozart’s Turkish Music (Royal Musical Association, 2000).

Entertainment Orientalism. See Popular Orientalism.

Environmental Orientalism

Scholars use this term to identify Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices that treat the natural environment, or particular elements of nature such as water, as an Other that has a fixed and immutable essence to be exploited. Nature is thus sometimes described in gender terms as passive, feminine, and ripe for conquest and exploitation. This term is also applied to Orientalist discourses directed specifically against indigenous peoples living in rural or wilderness environments as a backward Other that is imagined to be dangerous to the environment they live in. Environmental Orientalists thus promote a form of colonialism vis-á-vis natural environments and indigenous peoples.

See also: Gendered (Gender) Orientalism, Green Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Mohammad H. Basri, “Feminine Dimension in Islam and the Era of Masculinization Toward Nature.” Egalita Jurnal Kesetaraan dan Keadilan Gender 6 (2011); Bruce Braun, The Intemperate Rainforest: Nature, Culture, and Power on Canada's West Coast (U. of Minnesota, 2002); Eleanor Ruth Hayman, “Shaped by the Imagination: Myths of Water, Women, and Purity.” In On Water: Perceptions, Politics, Perils (Rachel Carson Center, 2012); Nemer E. Narchi & Beatriz C. Cristiani, “Subtle Tyranny Divergent Constructions of Nature and the Erosion of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Xochimilco.” Latin American Perspectives 42 (2015); Gísli Pálsson, “Human-Environmental Relations: Orientalism, Paternalism and Communalism.” In Nature and Society: Anthropological Perspectives (Routledge, 1996); Suzana Sawyer & Arun Agrawal, “Environmental Orientalisms.” Cultural Critique 45 (2000).

Epistemological Orientalism

This term has been used by a few scholars to describe the ways in which Western ways of thinking are internalized outside of the West especially through education and thus limit other peoples in their understanding of their own cultures. Epistemological Orientalisms are forms of self-Orientalization.  [9/16]

See also: Internalized Orientalism, Self-Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Pinar Bilgin, “Thinking Past ‘Western’ IR?” Third World Quarterly 29 (2008); Graham Harrison, Issues in the Contemporary Politics of Sub-Saharan Africa: The Dynamics of Struggle and Resistance (Palgrave, 2002); Lyam Ortmeier,“Translating Orientalism: Modes of Producing the Oriental Other in Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra” (Paper, Free U. of Berlin, 2007).

Erotic Orientalism. See Sexual Orientalism.

Ersatz Orientalism. See False Orientalism.

Eskimo Orientalism. See Arctic Orientalism.

Esoteric Orientalism. See Cult Orientalism.

Establishment Orientalism. See Official Orientalism.

Ethnocentric Orientalism

Scholars most often use this term as another term for ideological Orientalism usually in its more blatant and prejudicial forms, and some associate it directly with Edward W. Said's book, Orientalism (1978). It is generally used in passing and is neither frequently nor rarely used.  [10/17]

See also: Hard Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Sohaimi A. Aziz, "Contesting and Rejoicing the Colonial Discourse: As Reflected in a Malay Postcolonial Novel Written during the British Colonialization," 2016. At SHS Web of Conferences 23 (www.shs-conferences.org), accessed 10/17; Mikhail Oshukov, "Representation of Otherness In Literary Avant-Garde of Early Twentieth Century: David Burliuk’s and Ezra Pound’s Japan" (Thesis, U. of Turku, 2017); Henna-Riikka Pennanen, “Material, Mental, and Moral Progress: American Conceptions of Civilization in Late 19th Century Studies on “things Chinese and Japanese” (Diss., U. of Jyväskylä, 2015; J. Albert Rorabacher, Bihar and Mithila: The Historical Roots of Backwardness (Routledge, 2017).

Ethnographic Orientalism

Scholars use this term usually in one of two ways.  First, they sometimes use it to describe the field of study more commonly known as Orientalist ethnography, which is supposed by most scholars to have imagined and constructed Orientals as being essentially primitive and inferior (see the entry for "Orientalist ethnography").  Second, scholars use this term to describe a significant style of 19th century Orientalist painting, sculpture, and photography—primarily French and British. Ethnographic Orientalist artists sought to include in their works as many details of the "real" Orient as possible, thus supposedly portraying for their audiences authentic images of the Orient as it really was—hence the sense that their works were in effect ethnographic discourses that were academically accurate studies of Oriental peoples and cultures. Most scholars today, however, argue that their works still portrayed Orientals as having essential natures, which European artists can capture for their audiences. They still constructed an Orient that existed in their imaginations however seemingly realistic the details they included, and their art was still part of the larger Western "gaze" directed at the Orient. Many of the works of this movement, furthermore, portrayed nude or semi-nude Oriental women as being sensuous, mysterious, and sexually alluring. While some scholars trace the beginnings of ethnographic Orientalism as far back as the 14th century, this movement reached its apex in the middle decades of the 19th century when French artists took the lead in its development. Among the numerous artists who employed this style, the painter Jean-Léon Gérôme (1824-1904) and the sculptor Charles Cordier (1827-1905) are considered particularly notable. Cordier's sculpture, Nègre du Soudan (1856-1857), is considered to be one of the most exemplary works of ethnographic Orientalism. Rarely, a few scholars use the term anthropological Orientalism to describe ethnographic Orientalist art. [revised 8/18]

See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Imaginative Orientalism, Orientalist Ethnography, Orientalist Gaze, Realist Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Adrienne L. Childs, “The Black Exotic: Tradition and Ethnography in Nineteenth-Century Orientalist Art” (Ph.D. diss., Maryland, 2005); Berna Gueneli, “Orientalist Fashion, Photography, and Fantasies: Baron Max von Oppenheim's Arabian Nights in Context.” The German Quarterly 90 (2017); Alicia Walker,“The Power of Things and the Flow of Cultural Transformations / Islamic Artefacts in the Mediterranean World,” 2013. At West 86th (www.west86th.bgc.bard.edu), accessed 8/18; Agata Wójcik, “Jean-Léon Gérôme and Stanisław Chlebowski: The Story of a Friendship,” 2010. At RIHA Journal (www.riha-journal.org), accessed 8/18.

Ethno-Orientalism. See Self-Orientalism.

Etymological Orientalism. See Comparative Orientalism.

Euro-Orientalism

In a 2001 article, Csaba Dupcsik claims responsibility for first using this term, but it is Ezqueil Adamovsky who has popularized the term to a degree. According to both, Euro-Orientalism is a form of European internal Orientalism by which Western European Orientalists ("Euro-Orientalists") imagine and construct Central and Eastern Europe as well as Russia as having Oriental-like qualities. The peoples and nations of these regions, that is, are essentially less civilized and less modern than Western Europe and are given to despotism and marred by their Communist heritages. Euro-Orientalists thus construct their Western European Self as being superior in the ways that matter. Scholars note that many people in Central and Eastern Europe and in Russia accept this Euro-Orientalist paradigm, seeing themselves and their cultures as inferior to the West.

See also: Greek Orientalism (Modern), Ideological Orientalism, Internal Orientalism, Nesting (Nested) Orientalism, Russian Orientalism, Self-Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Ezqueil Adamovsky, Euro-Orientalism: Liberal Ideology and the Image of Russia in France (c. 1740-1880) (Peter Lang, 2006); Csaba Dupcsik, “The West, the East, and the Border-lining.” Social Science in Eastern Europe Newsletter (2001); Yakov Zinberg, "Jews, the Asian Refugees: Otto Weininger’s Hatred of Himself, Women, Asians and Africans. Anticipating Melanie Klein’s Phantasy and Splitting." 21st Century Asian Studies Research 12 (2014).

Evangelical Orientalism

Scholars use this term to describe the ideological Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices that were the result of a conservative Protestant religious movement in Europe (especially Britain) and North America usually seen as beginning in the early 19th century. This "evangelical" movement is historically closely identified with evangelism, revivalism, and networks of voluntary associations, agencies, and educational institutions intended to sustain a domestic and international missionary movement. The ultimate goal is the conversion of the non-Christian world (the Other) to a "saving faith" in the Christian Triune God. These networks have continued into the present. Evangelical Orientalists use a distinct language of their own to imagine the Other as (historically) "heathen" or (today) those who are not "saved".

See also: Biblical Orientalism, Christian Orientalism, Learned Orientalism, Religious Orientalism, Theological Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Robbie G. H. Goh, "Film-as-Maturion: Faith, Healing and 'The Body' in Evangelical Orientalism." Material Religion: The Journal of Objects, Art and Belief 11 (2015); Nile Green, Terrains of Exchange: Religious Economies of Global Islam (Oxford, 2015); Gary Kelly, "Social Conflict, Nation and Empire: From Gothicism to Romantic Orientalism." Ariel: A Review of International English Literature 20 (1989); Avril A. Powell, Muslims and Missionaries in Pre-Mutiny India (Routledge, 2003).

Exotic Orientalism

Scholars use this frequently used term in at least four distinct ways.  First and most often, scholars and others use it to describe a broadly aesthetic style that creates what is taken to be the haunting, sensual, mystical, romantic, rhythmic, ethos of the Orient.  Second, scholars use this term as a synonym for ideological Orientalism, that is the imagining and constructing of the Oriental Other as having an essential, unchanging nature that is distinct from the West (i.e. "exotic").  Third, scholars use this term in ways similar to the term, Orientalist exotica, to describe all of the "paraphernalia" used to promote an ethos of the Orient as distant, strange, mystical, sensuous, and alien. However, where scholars almost never treat Orientalist exotica as an ideological notion, their use of the term "exotic Orientalism" can suggest ideologies of Orientalism or hints of such ideologies even if not specified. Fourth, scholars also sometimes use this term and the term Orientalist exoticism in similar ways to the point of being synonymous although this term, again, tends to be somewhat more ideological in tone. In all of these uses, Asian/Oriental women are particularly objectified as exemplifying the very essence of exotic Asian-ness in their dress, their demeanour, and their supposedly alluring sensuousness.  [revised 3/18]

See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Belated Orientalism, Consumer Orientalism, Cultural Orientalism, Fashion Orientalism, Jewish Orientalism, Literary Orientalism, Musical Orientalism, Oriental Orientalism, Oriental's Orientalism, Orientalist Exotica, Orientalist Exoticism, Orientalist Imagination, Pictorial Orientalism, Romantic Orientalism, Seaside Orientalism, Self-Orientalism, Theatrical Orientalism, Wacky Orientalism, Women's Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: TejuAdisa-Farrar, In-Between Things: A Book of Poetry, Stories of Identity, and Interpreting Society (Xilbris Corp., 2012); Michael Billington, “Chu Chin Chow,” 2008. At The Guardian (www.theguardian.com), accessed 2/18; Kitty Scoular Datta, “Iskandar Alexander: Oriental Geography and Romantic Poetry.” In Reorienting Orientalism (SAGE, 2006); Kathleen M. Drowne & Patrick Huber, The 1920s (Greenwood, 2004); Michael D. K. Ing, “Future Prospects in the Comparison of Religions.” Dialogue: A Journal of Mormon Though t44 (2011);   Keep on the Grass, “Part 3: Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon and Cultural Purity,” 2016. At Keep On The Grass (https://keeponthegrass.net), accessed 2/18; Maxwell E Loos, "Comparative Medinas: Complexity and Contradiction in Tourist Spaces in Tunisia" (Study Project, Independent (ISP) Collection, 2009); Roberta Mock, Jewish Women on Stage, Film, and Television (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007); Yaron Peleg, Orientalism and the Hebrew Imagination (Cornell, 2005); Emiko Okayama & Francesco Ricatti, “Tokidoki, Cute and Sexy Fantasies between East and West: Contemporary Aesthetics for the Global Market.” PORTAL 5 (2008); Yaron Peleg, Orientalism and the Hebrew Imagination (Cornell, 2005).

External Orientalism

Scholars use this term usually to describe Orientalisms that are directed against (inflicted on) foreign peoples and nations, that is Others who live outside of the political and sociocultural boundaries of the Self’s nation and people. As is often the case with Orientalisms generally, external Orientalisms can construct the foreign Other as being either essentially and irredeemably inferior or superior—but most often the foreign Other is considered to be inferior, for example uncivilized, immoral, or even a dangerous threat.  Scholars frequently pair the notion of external Orientalisms with that of internal Orientalisms, which are Orientalisms directed against peoples who live within those boundaries—for example, ethnic minorities. Unlike scholarly treatments of the notion of “internal Orientalism,” which usually described those Orientalisms in terms of its own merits, however, scholars as a rule treat the notion of external Orientalism in its relationship to internal Orientalism.  They often make the point that external and internal Orientalisms are not opposites but reflect similar ideological strategies and attitudes.  They simply imagine and construct differently targeted Others.   [revised 6/19]

See also: Ideological Orientalism, Internal Orientalism, Self-Orientalism.

Sources & Examples: Tamara Hundorova, “’Internal Colonization—Re-Colonization,” 2011. At Krytyka: Thinking Ukraine (https://krytyka.com/en), accessed 4/17; Christina Lombardi-Diop, “Orientalism.” In Historical Companion to Postcolonial Literatures – Continental Europe and Its Empires (Edinburgh, 2011); Enis Sulstarova, “Rilindja’s Place in the Orientalism of Intellectuals in Post-Communist Albania.” Annales Series Historia et Sociologia 22 (2012); Bryan S. Turner,“Orientalism, or the Politics of the Text.” In Interpreting Islam (SAGE, 2002).

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