Glossary of Orientalisms
Note: in the text of each entry, users will find terms for Orientalisms sometimes highlighted in bold and sometimes highlighted in italics. Bold Orientalisms (e.g. Aboriginal Orientalism) refer to main entries in this glossary. Italicized Orientalisms (e.g. Afro Orientalism) do not have their own entry but are referred to in an another entry, which is indicated by a "See" entry (e.g. Afro Orientalism. See Black Orientalism).
This term (including the variations of "parallel Orientalist" and "Orientalist Parallels") is not frequently used. When scholars do use it they generally use it in two broad ways. First, some scholars use it to describe similarities between one form or another of Orientalism and other concepts or phenomenon. Colonialism and Orientalism, for example, are different concepts and phenomena, but there are clear similarities (“parallels”) between them. While scholars more often use the term, quasi-Orientalism, to describe this first usage of this term, the fundamental idea of similarities remains the same. Second, scholars also use this term to describe close relationships between differing forms or uses of Orientalism in, for example, different cultural contexts or between two different historical periods. In this second usage, the similarities are between two forms of Orientalism rather than between something else and Orientalism. Thus, reverse Orientalisms may be considered to be Orientalisms that are closely associated with (“parallel to”) the Western Orientalisms on which they are modeled and from which they are drawn. Turkish and Indian nationalists, for example, have both articulated Orientalisms that “parallel” Western ideological Orientalism. In one special usage of this term, Malreddy Pavan Kumar has cryptically defined it as being the exhibition of the mirror image traits between “good” and “bad” individuals within a given community, his example being “good Muslims vs. bad Muslims.” In another special usage, Fatima Abbadi in a photographic exhibit that she held in London in 2015 used this term to point to the fundamental sameness of people through all human cultures and societies—arguing, that is, there are Orientalist “parallels” between all of us wherever and whoever we are. [revised 7/17]
See also: Quasi-Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Fatima Abbadi, “London Exhibition: ‘Parallel Orientalism’.” At Fatima Abbadi Photography (fatimaabbadi.blogspot.com), accessed 7/17; Joseph P. Cosco, Imagining Italians: The Clash of Romance and Race in American Perceptions, 1880-1910 (State U. of New York, 2003); Jarrod Hayes, Queer Nations: Marginal Sexualities in the Maghreb (U. of Chicago, 2000); Dunia El-Zobaidi, “Parallel Orientalism Challenges Stereotypes.” The Arab Weekly 1, 33 (27 Nov. 2015); Sophus Helle, "The Return of Mess O’Potamia: Time, Space, and Politics in Modern Uses of Ancient Mesopotamia." Postcolonial Studies 19 (2016); Malreddy P. Kumar, "Introduction: Orientalism(s) after 9/11." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48 (2012); Herbert R. Swanson, “Said’s Orientalism and the Study of Christian Missions.” International Bulletin of Missionary Research 28 (2004); Eliana V. Trenam, “Pseudo-feminism in Orientalist Romantic Ballet,” 2010. At Iowa Research Online (http://ir.uiowa.edu), accessed 7/17.
This term and its related term Orientalist paranoia are not frequently used; but when scholars do use them they use them to describe particularly extreme forms of ideological Orientalism grounded in irrational anxieties and fears that are frequently racially based. Some scholars thus equate paranoid Orientalism with “white paranoia.” In the United States, fear of communism previously and the trauma of 9/11 more recently have been causes of American Orientalist paranoia. In general, paranoid Orientalism is based on a deep distrust of the (Oriental) Other, which imagines and constructs the Other in ways that are not grounded in reality but, instead, are based on conspiracy theories that justify suppressing the Other. As a collective rather than individual form of psychological paranoia, paranoid Orientalism can and does have wide and sometimes powerful social, political, and economic impacts especially on its victims. [revised 7/17]
See also: Hard Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Modern Orientalism, New Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Jim Bowman, Narratives of Cyprus: Modern Travel Writing and Cultural Encounters since Lawrence Durrell (I. B. Tauris, 2015). Edward King, Virtual Orientalism in Brazilian Culture (Palgrave McMillan, 2015); Pourya A. Moussa, et al., “Mechanisms of Mobility in a Capitalist Culture: The Localisation of the Eye of (Global) Authority in the Novel and the Film of Jhumpa Lahiri's The Namesake.” KEMANUSIAAN: The Asian Journal of Humanities 23, Supp. 2 (2016.); Panopticonrus, “Confronting Crowds and Power: 12a. (A Summary for ‘The End of the Survivor’),” 2013. At Panopticonrus (https://panopticonsrus.wordpress.com), accessed 7/17; Sanjay S. A. Sharma, “White Paranoia: Orientalism in the Age of Empire.” Fashion Theory 7 (2003).
Paternal Orientalism. See Paternalistic Orientalism.
Scholars generally use this term to describe the ways in which a Self, usually Western, imagines and constructs an essentially inferior (Oriental) Other as being in need of assistance and oversight ostensibly for the Other's own sake. It is thus a somewhat more ambivalent, subtle, and less direct form of ideological Orientalism, which is able to see good qualities in the Other while still imagining the Other as essentially deficient. Paternalistic Orientalists can feel sentimental toward the Other, desiring to “protect” them and, often, their supposed "traditional "cultural heritage in the face of modernization. These protective (paternalistic) feelings, however, tend to be unstable and break down in times of tension and conflict. Scholars often describe paternalistic Orientalism as being mixed with or on a scale with other forms of ideological Orientalism and racism.
See also: Ideological Orientalism, Patronizing Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Zaheer Baber, “Orientalism, Occidentalism, Nativism: the Culturalist Quest for Indigenous Science and Knowledge.” The European Legacy 7 (2002); Phillip L. Hammack, Narrative and the Politics of Identity: The Cultural Psychology of Israeli Palestinian Youth (Oxford, 2011); Adia Mendelson-Maoz, Multiculturalism in Israel: Literary Perspectives (Purdue, 2014); Anna Triandafyllidou & Ruby Gropas, What is Europe? (Palgrave Macmillan, 2015).
This term is generally associated with John Kuo Wei Tchen’s book, New York Before Chinatown (1999), which details how wealthy residents of New York City used the consumption of Chinese imported goods and the services of Chinese immigrants to confirm and sustain their elite status. Patrician Orientalism contributed to the formation of American identity and racial attitudes by helping to create Asians as the stereotypical, inferior Other.
See also: Commercial Orientalism, Cultural Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Tarek Cherkaoui, “Orientlaism, Pan-Arabism, and Military-media Warfare: A Comparison Between CNN and Aljazeera Coverage of the Iraq War” (Ph.D. diss., AUT U., 2010); Jane Chi Hyun Park, Yellow Future: Oriental Style in Hollywood Cinema (U. of Minnesota, 2010); John Kuo Wei Tchen, New York Before Chinatown: Orientalism and the Shaping of American Culture 1776-1882 (Johns Hopkins, 1999).
Scholars use this term in a general, non-technical sense to describe a superficially affirming attitude toward an (Oriental) Other that is actually condescending and imagines and constructs that Other as being essentially inferior, backward, or otherwise deficient. Scholars also use this term in a more technical sense to refer specifically to Saidian Orientalism as described by Edward W. Said in his book, Orientalism (1978). It is, thus, a synonym for ideological Orientalism. [5/17]
See also: Ideological Orientalism, Paternalistic Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Edwin D. Aponte, “Theologizing Popular Protestantism.” In The Wiley Blackwell Companion to Latino/a Theology (Wiley Blackwell, 2015); Carleton S. Coon, Culture Wars and the Global Village: A Diplomat’s Perspective (Prometheus Books, 2000); Charles Davis, “The Iraq War Never Ended: An Interview with Anand Gopal,” 2016. At Informed Comment (https://www.juancole.com), accessed 5/17; Rahila Gupta, “Taking a Flawed Stand Against Orientalism.” At 50.50 Inclusive Democracy (www.opendemocracy.net), accessed 4/17; Peter Heehs, “Shades of Orientalism: Paradoxes and Problems in Indian Historiography.” History and Theory 42 (2003).
Pejorative Orientalism. See Negative Orientalism.
This term is not frequently used, and some scholars who do use it emphasize that the phenomenon of peripheral Orientalism remains little studied so that what can be said about it must be tentative. Still, they use this term to describe Orientalisms of nations or classes of people who live on the outer boundaries (the “periphery”) of Western society—such as the nations of Latin America or minorities in the United States. These peoples have been both objects of Orientalist stereotyping and themselves engaged in such stereotyping; and while the consequences of their situations remain unclear, some scholars are convinced that living on the boundaries of the West does have an impact on how peripheral Orientalists imagine and construct Others. In some cases, at least, they appear to imagine and construct Others both as having essential, timeless natures and yet see those natures in a positive light. In other cases, Orientalist stereotyping appears to be less pervasive if still present in these nations and peoples. Wael Hallaq, meanwhile, has used this term in a different way to describe the less structured popular Orientalisms of common (“peripheral”) people who are not academic Orientalists or influential members of the media, that is not core producers and purveyors of ideological Orientalisms. [7/17]
See also: Black Orientalism, Celticism, Frontier Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Nesting (Nested) Orientalism, Scottish Orientalism, Subaltern Orientalism, Positive Orientalism, Quasi-Orientalism, Relational Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Hasan Azad, “Interview with Wael Hallaq,” 2014. At Tabsir (http://tabsir.net), accessed 7/17; Zoila Clark, “Enrique Gomez Carrillo's Japan and Latin American (Peripheral) Orientalism.” In Orientalism and Identity in Latin America: Fashioning Self and Other from the (Post)colonial Margin (U. of Arizona, 2013); María C. da Silva, "Southern insights into Orient and Western Orientalisms." Revista de Estudios Internacionales Mediterráneos 21 (2016); Sunaina Maira, “Belly Dancing: Arab-Face, Orientalist Feminism, and U.S. Empire.” American Quarterly 60 (2008); Sunaina Maira, “Indo-Chic: Late Capitalist Orientalism and Imperial Culture.” In Alien Encounters: Popular Culture in Asian America (Duke, 2007); Julián Vazeilles, “’Peripheral’ Orientalisms in the Contemporary Argentinean Narrative: Brief Notes on the Novel Mary Domecq (2007), by Juan Forn,” n.d. At Korean-Argentine Study Center (http://www.uba.ar). Accessed 15 July 2017.
Scholars today generally use this term in at least two ways. First, several scholars draw on the distinction Edward W. Said makes in his book, Orientalism (1978), between Orientalism of an individual nature vis-à-vis ones that are “official”. Said himself does not use this term as such, but he does argue that historically individual Orientalists have often held views that do not rise to the level of being widely accepted, especially in the academic community of their day. Their views are thus "personal" rather than "official" and in some sense distinct from and/or independent of official Orientalism. Second, other scholars use this term more specifically to describe the unique works of individual artists who draw on “Oriental” themes and styles in their work. Marjetica Potrč’s architectural design, Prishtina House (2006), is frequently cited as an example of an aesthetic “personal Orientalism.” This term is not frequently used in either of these usages. This term was also used in the 19th century, in at least one source ("The Marquis de Custine’s Russia,” 1844), to describe “personal” traits that were shared by and distinguished a particular Oriental people. Beards, for example, were thought to be a distinguishing personal trait of Russian peasant males and thus to signify their “Oriental” identity. [7/18]
See also: Academic Orientalism, Aesthetic Orientalism, Official Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: José M. S. Álvarez, “Journalism and Literature in the Egyptian Revolution of 1882: Eça de Queirós and the News in the Plot of Intrigue.” SAGE Open 4 (2014); Daniel Birnbaum, “Air Portikus,” 2006. At domus (https://www.domusweb.it), accessed 7/18; Susanna M. Kuehl, “Henri Matisse, Textile Artist: Costumes Designed for the Ballets Russes Production of Chat du Rossignolm 1919-1920” (M. A. thesis, Smithsonian Associates & Corcoran College of Art & Design, 2011); “The Marquis de Custine’s Russia.” Edinburgh Review 50 (1844); Megan McDaniel, “Re-Presenting the Harem: Orientalist Female Artists and the 19th Century Ottoman Empire” (B.A. thesis, Florida State, 2014); Su Young Park, “Western Perception of Korea 1890-1930: Comparative Study on the Relationship between Reciprocity and Colonial Discourse” (M.A. thesis, 2008); Marjetica Potrč, “Contemporary Building Strategies,” n.d. At Marjetica Potrč (https://www.potrc.org), accessed 7/18.
Some scholars use this term to describe a generally milder form of ideological Orientalist discourse that displayes a fondness for and willingness to draw on the Arab East especially in literature and the arts while still seeing the Orient as essentially exotic. Philo-Orientalism is most often linked to the periods of the Enlightenment and Romanticism. [5/17]
See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Enlightenment Orientalism, Literary Orientalism, Positive Orientalism, Romantic Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Srinivas Aravamudan, Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel (U. of Chicago, 2012); Aida Imangulieva, Gibran, Rihani & Naimy: East–West Interactions in Early Twentieth-century Arab Literature (Inner Farne, 2009); Ivan D. Kalmar, Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the Notion of Sublime Power (Routledge, 2012); Ivan Kalmar, “The Israelite Temple of Florence.” In Religious Architecture: Anthropological Perspectives (Amsterdam U., 2013).
Scholars use this term and the term Orientalist philology to describe the crucial historical role that the academic field of philology played in the development of the notion of Orientalism beginning at the end of the 18th century through roughly the post-World War II period. They disagree, however, as to the precise nature of that role depending on their appraisal of Edward W. Said’s critique of it (1978). Although Said recognized that there were different branches and approaches to philology, he characterized the field as being the crucial academic vessel of ideological Orientalism, which imposed European notions of language and culture on non-Western languages, virtually inventing the supposed linguistic development of those languages from philologists' own suppositions and prejudices. Orientalist philologists, that is, shoehorned the “Oriental” texts they studied into their own European framework. According to Said, they imagined and constructed other languages as essentially different from and inferior to European languages, and many of them adhered to a dualistic division between backward “Semitic” and advanced “Aryan” languages. Other scholars have argued that Said selected a narrow range of Orientalist philologists who fit his paradigm, ignored many others, and did not give sufficient attention to other developments in philology that were more empirical and less prejudiced, especially later in the 19th century. Supporters of Said respond that even within these counter-movements, they still detect the main contours of Orientalist stereotypes; and some go so far as to argue that Orientalist philology was essentially racist. They contend that Orientalist philology was not a scientific field of study and depended largely on what was believed and imagined about other languages. Among those scholars who largely agree with Said, philological Orientalism is generally seen as a tool of European colonialism. However, it is also understood that scholars in Asian nations, particularly India, accepted philological Orientalism’s notion of national languages and used that notion to promote the development of their own “national” literature.
See also: Academic Orientalism, Comparative Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Linguistic Orientalism, Literary Orientalism, Oriental Literature, Orientalist Literature, Orientalist Science, Reverse Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Scientific Orientalism, Scottish Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Manisha Basu, The Rhetoric of Hindutva (Cambridge, 2017); Norman J. Girardot, “The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge’s Oriental Pilgrimage" (U. of California, 2002); Maryam W. Khan, “Translated Orientalisms: The Eighteenth-century Oriental Tale, Colonial Pedagogies, and Muslim Reform.” (Ph.D. diss., U. of California, Los Angeles, 2013); Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism (Cambridge, 2004); David Moshfegh, “Ignaz Goldziher and the Rise of Islamwissenschaft as a ‘Science of Religion’” (Ph.D. diss., U. of California at Berkeley, 2012); Aamir R. Mufti, "Orientalism and the Institution of World Literatures." Critical Inquiry 36 (2010); Marc Nichanian, Mourning Philology: Art and Religion at the Margins of the Ottoman Empire (Fordham, 2014); Stephen Quirke, “Creation Stories in Ancient Egypt.” In Imagining Creation (Brill, 2008); Edward W. Said, Orientalism (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978); Emel Tastekin, “Another Look at Orientalism: Western Literature in the Face of Islam” (Ph.D. diss., British Columbia, 2011); Richard G. Thomas, “Philology in Vietnam and its Impact on Southeast Asian Cultural History” Modern Asian Studies 40 (2006); Daniel M. Varisco, Reading Orientalism: Said and the Unsaid (U. of Washington, 2007).
Scholars frequently use this term and the term Orientalist philosophy to describe the ways in which Western philosophers, their schools, and traditions have used reasoned discourse to imagine and construct the “Orient” as having an essential, unchanging, and mystical/spiritual nature. Western Orientalist philosophers have directed their attention, in particular, toward Asian philosophies and religions. In the main, they share in all of the notions, prejudices, and justifications of ideological Orientalism and have, in fact, both drawn on and significantly contributed to Western cultural Orientalism. While Orientalist thinking is found throughout the history of Western philosophy from ancient times onward, it emerged as a significant element of philosophical discourse in the 19th century, particularly in Germany, France, and Great Britain. Those discourses, because they are philosophical, tend to be nuanced, closely reasoned, and subtle in their rendering of Orientalist notions. They can also seem self-contradictory depending on the context and stage of thinking in which individual philosophers are writing. When evaluating historical Eastern philosophies, they generally imagine and construct those philosophies as being imitative, in decline, incapable of high reason, and consisting mostly of disguised Greek thinking. Western Orientalist philosophers have frequently focused on the supposedly essential spirituality and mysticism of the Orient, some seeing in these qualities a key defect of the East while others, notably those influenced by Romanticism, have seen these qualities as being superior to Western materialism. Some scholars note that philosophical Orientalism came into prominence at a time when European colonialism was rapidly expanding and was implicated in supporting that expansion. This was especially the case because many philosophers held a progressive view of history that saw Western Christian civilization as the culmination of history while the Orient was important only at the beginning of history and had not progressed since then. [revised 11/17]
See also: Academic Orientalism, Cognitive Orientalism, Cultural Orientalism, Eclectic Orientalism, Enlightenment Orientalism, Hegelian Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Intellectual Orientalism, Kantian Orientalism, Orientalist Epistemology, Oriental Renaissance, Platonic Orientalism, Positivist Orientalism, Romantic Orientalism, Scottish Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Transcendental Orientalism, Weberian Orientalism, Utilitarian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Srinivas Aravamudan, Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel (U. of Chicago, 2012); Mohammad Azadpur, “Is ‘Islamic’ Philosophy Islamic?” Voice of Islam, v. 1, Voice of Tradition (Praeger, 2007); Asef Bayat, “Neo-Orientalism,” 2015. At ISA The Futures We Want (http://futureswewant.net), accessed 11/17; Purushottama Bilimoria, “Comparative Philosophy of Religion: Hegel to Habermas (& Zîzêk).” Cultura Oriental 2 (2015); Sujit Bose, Essays on Anglo-Indian Literature (Northern Book Centre, 2004); Lev Kreft, “Lost in Translation: Heidegger and Ski Jumping in Slovenia.” Physical Culture and Sports Studies and Research 49 (2010); Arvind-Pal S. Mandair, Religion and the Specter of the West: Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality, and the Politics of Translation (Columbia, 2016); Joanna Neilly, “Who is the Subaltern? A Consideration of the ‘Oriental Woman’ in the Work of E. T. A. Hoffmann.” In Bonds and Borders: Identity, Imagination and Transformation in Literature (Cambridge Scholars, 2011); Edward W. Said, Orientalism (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978).
Phony (Phoney) Orientalism. See False Orientalism.
This term is fairly frequently used. Scholars generally use it to describe a form of visual “Oriental” representation limited primarily to painting and photography (including postcards) which was popular in the 19th and early 20th centuries. This term is especially used to refer to Orientalist paintings, particularly those of a school of French painters that included artists such as Eugène Delacroix. Pictorial Orientalists imagined and represented “Orientals” as being essentially and identifiably exotic, colorful, and picturesque. Scholars especially emphasize the ways in which pictorial Orientalists represented Eastern women as being sexual, sensuous, and lewd; and it is generally understood that these Orientalists were complicit in European colonialism and gave expression to concerns for power as much as for aesthetics. This term is to be distinguished from the more general term, visual Orientalism, which refers to a broader range of visual media. [6/17]
See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Avant-garde Orientalism, Exotic Orientalism, Fashion Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Orientalist Archive, Political Orientalism, Sexual Orientalism, Visual Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Ibrahim Alaoui, “A Selection of Tunsian Contemporary Artists at Gallery 3,14,” n.d. At Stimftelsen 3,14 (http://www.stiftelsen314.com), accessed 6/17; Inge E. Boer, “Introduction: Imaginative Geographies and the Discourse of Orientalism.” In After Orientalism: Critical Entanglements, Productive Looks (Rodopi, 2003); Catrin Gersdorf, The Poetics and Politics of the Desert: Landscape and the Construction of America (Rodopi, 2009); Jill L. Matus, Unstable Bodies: Victorian Representations of Sexuality and Maternity (Manchester U., 1995); Aimillia M. Ramli, “’Licentious Barbarians’: Representations of North African Muslims in Britain.” Intellectual Discourse 17 (2009); Brian Singleton, Oscar Asche, Orientalism, and British Musical Comedy (Praeger, 2004).
Pictorialist Orientalism. See Pictorial Orientalism.
This term is attributed to John Walbridge, The Wisdom of the Mystic East (2001). Scholars normally use it to describe an ancient philosophical-religious tradition held to originate with Plato, which was revived in Europe in the 15th century and today is associated with Western esoteric and occultist literature. Scholars argue that Platonic Orientalists in Roman times and in Renaissance Europe imagined a primordial, pure wisdom that originates in the East (variously Egypt, Mesopotamia, and as far east as India) and defined themselves in terms of this imaginary Eastern Other. This wisdom is held to reveal the divine Mind and the path of personal salvation. Zlatko Plese’s notion of Platonist Orientalism is similar to Platonic Orientalism but focuses on a small number of Roman philosophers who held that the wisdom traditions of Plato and of the “barbarians” were compatible and shared a common source.
See also: Ancient Orientalism, Philosophical Orientalism, Positive Orientalism, Renaissance Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Dylan M. Burns, Apocalypse of the Alien God: Platonism and the Exile of Sethian Gnosticism (U. of Pennsylvania, 2014); Wouter J. Hanegraaff, “Gnosis.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Western Mysticism and Esotericism (Cambridge, 2016); Wouter J. Hanegraaff, “The Pagan Who Came from the East: George Gemistos Plethon and Platonic Orientalism.” In Hermes in the Academy: Ten Years’ Study of Western Esotericism at the University of Amsterdam (Amsterdam U., 2009); Zlatko Plese, “Platonist Orientalism.” In Historical and Biographical Values of Plutarch’s Works: Studies Devoted to Professor Philip Stadter by the International Plutarch Society (Utah State, 2005); John Walbridge, The Wisdom of the Mystic East: Suhrawardi and Platonic Orientalism (State U. of New York, 2001).
Platonist Orientalism. See Platonic Orientalism.
Pleasure-Pier Orientalism. See Seaside Orientalism.
Scholars use this term usually in one of two ways. First, they frequently use it and the terms Orientalist poetry and Orientalist poetics to describe the works of Western as well as some Asian poets that draw on Orientalist images and themes. Second, scholars far less frequently use this term to describe poetry that either originates or has been at some point believed to originate in Asia—that is Oriental poetry. It is the first usage that we focus on here. The English-language scholarly literature concerning poetic Orientalism tends to focus primarily on 19th century British Romantic poets such as Lord Byron (1788-1824) and Robert Southey (1744-1843) among many others; and it credits the influence of Sir William Jones (1746-1794) as being a key figure in the discovery and increasing popularity of Orientalist poetry, which in turn is held to have been instrumental in the emergence of British Romanticism. Poetic Orientalism was an important element of the broader movement of literary Orientalism, and scholars sometimes treat it as one form of fictional Orientalism. Most of them see this genre of poetry as emerging in the 18th century with Sir Thomas Moore (1779-1852) being an influential early example. Poetic Orientalism has had an impact on other artistic fields, including especially music where it has provided the lyrics for musical Orientalist songs. Orientalist poetry is widely seen as playing a major role in British poetry generally in the 19th century. A school of 19th-century Indian poets, for example, is reported to have used the forms of British poetic Orientalism especially to glorify India’s ancient past. The English-language literature on poetic Orientalism has also, secondarily, given attention to American modernist poetic Orientalism, which is generally held to begin with Ezra Pound (1885-1972) and credits Gary Snyder (1930- ) as being its leading 20th century practitioner. The central issue that scholars debate concerning Orientalist poetry and poetics is the relation of poetic Orientalism to Edward W. Said’s notion of ideological Orientalism, that is Saidian Orientalism. While Said (1978) says almost nothing about Orientalist poetry directly, he does consider it to be simply another form of colonialist/imperialist discourse that historically participated in imagining and constructing “Orientals” as being essentially and irredeemably inferior. Scholars acknowledge that many Romantic era poets were Orientalists in this sense, sometimes naming Southey as an important example. Other scholars argue, however, that Said failed to engage with this poetry, which in fact is more complex than he allows and often uses Asian themes and images in positive ways. Moore and Byron are often cited as key examples of poets who more carefully studied Asian literature and culture, had a positive appreciation for them, and used “Oriental” poetics to reinvigorate Western poetry. Their imaginative representations of the Orient enriched British poetry generally in positive ways that at times challenged British colonialism and imperialism. Women’s Orientalist poetry, by the same token, provided a venue that allowed women to re-imagine their role in their own society. Other scholars make similar arguments for American modernist poetic Orientalism, which particularly emphasized Asian spirituality as a resource for American renewal. [3/19]
See also: Byronic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Literary Orientalisms, Musical Orientalism, Oriental Literature, Orientalist Literature, Oriental Poetry, Positive Orientalism, Romantic Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Self-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Poetic Orientalism: William E. Curtis, Children of the Sun (Inter-Ocean, 1883); Roger Pao, “Kubla Kahn and Orientalism,” 2005. At Asian-American Poetry and Other Artistic Meanderings (asianamericanpoetry.blogspot.com), accessed 4/16; Benedict S. Robinson, “England, the ‘Orient,’ and the Ocean.” In A Companion to British Literature, v. 2, Early Modern Literature, 1450-1660 (Wiley Blackwell, 2014); J. E. Terblanche, “Cummings’ ‘1(a’: Solitude, Solidarity, Wholeness,”  At Grand Valley State University (faculty.gvsu.edu), accessed 4/16; Leonardo R. Tobar, “The Spanish Literary System in the Nineteenth Century.” In A Comparative History of Literatures in the Iberian Peninsula, v. 1 (John Benjamins, 2010). Orientalist Poetry: Pyeaam Abbasi & Alireza Anushiravani, "Coleridge’s Colonial Interest in Abyssinian Christianity." k@ta 12, (2011); Rosinka Chaudhuri, “Orientalist Themes and English Verse in Nineteenth-century India” (Ph.D. Diss., Oxford, 1996); Adeline Johns-Putra, “Home and the Harem: Early Nineteenth-Century Orientalist Representations of Women by Women.” Nineteenth-Century Gender Studies 2 (2006); Valerie Kennedy, “Orientalism in the Victorian Era,” n.d. At Oxford Index (http://oxfordindex.oup.com), accessed 5/17; Christian Kloeckner & Sabine Sielke, “From “Drops – of India” to “Floors / Descending”: Orient and Orientalisms in US-American Poetry and Poetics.” In Orient and Orientalisms in US-American Poetry and Poetics (Peter Lang, 2009); Sarga Moussa, “Imaginary Hybridities: Geographic, Religious and Poetic Crossovers in Victor Hugo’s ‘Les Orientales’,” 2013. At HAL archives-ouvertes.fr (https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr), accessed 2/19; Andrew Rudd, "‘Oriental’ and ‘Orientalist’ Poetry: The Debate in Literary Criticism in the Romantic Period." Romanticism: The Journal of Romantic Culture and Criticism 13 (2007); J. E.Terblanche & F. F. Terblanche, “Ezra Pound’s Orientalist poetry, Natural Rootedness, and Lepidoptera.” Literator 23 (2002). Orientalist Poetics: Emily A. Haddad, Orientalist Poetics: The Islamic East in Nineteenth-Century English and French Poetry (Routledge, 2002); Monirul Islam, “A Tale of Three Journeys: Orientalist Poetics/Politics of Landor’s Gebir.” Impressions: A Bi-Annual Refereed e-Journal of English Studies 11 (2017); Josephine Park, Apparitions of Asia: Modernist Form and Asian American Poetics (Oxford 2008).
Scholars use this term and its synonym Orientalist politics to describe one of the key aspects of the notion of ideological Orientalism, namely the ways in which ideological Orientalisms were used to justify European colonialism and continue to be used down to the present to justify Western imperialisms by holding that Orientals lack the capacity for just and effective self-governance and thus are supposedly a danger to the West. Orientals are, that is, imagined and constructed as being incapable of exercising true citizenship. In all of this, scholars use these two terms to encompass the usual set of Orientalist prejudices, which stereotype Orientals as being essentially and irredeemably inferior, irrational, exotic, backward, lacking in civilization, sensuous, and so forth. Scholars, more generally, apply them to many different “political” situations, such as especially cases of sexual politics, where Orientalist prejudices are used to gain and exercise power over others. They also point to the ways in which Orientalist politics employs the arts, literature, and other cultural forms to further Orientalist agendas. Thus, for example, Eugène Delacroix’s painting The Fanatics of Tangier (1837-1838) represents something of the supposedly chaotic, backward nature of Arab politics. Although scholars occasionally use both of these terms, especially “Orientalist politics,” to describe Asians more generally and even more rarely non-Asians, they most frequently use them in reference to the Arab-Muslim Middle East, which is not only seen to be politically incompetent and dangerous but also deemed to suffer under the dominance of religion (i.e. Islam) over its politics. More generally, scholars also point out the significant impact the idea of political Orientalism has had on world history since the 19th century, as a factor in the redrawing of the world’s political maps. They also note that, as is usually the case with various forms of Orientalism, Asians themselves have often appropriated Orientalist categories to describe their own political systems as being essentially different from and even superior to those of the West. [revised 2/18]
See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Gender Orientalism. Governmental Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Racial Orientalism, Sexual Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Political Orientalism: Fred Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (Palgrave Macmillan, 2002); Khalid El Farouj, “Edward Said & Orientalism,” 2000. At MURAL (http://mural.uv.es/kelfa/), accessed 2/18; Jack Harrington, “Orientalism, Political Subjectivity and the Birth of Citizenship Between 1780 and 1830.” In Citizenship After Orientalism: An Unfinished Project (Routledge, 2014); Engin F. Isin, “Citizenship after Orientalism: Ottoman Citizenship.“ In Citizenship in a Global World: European Questions and Turkish Experiences (Routledge, 2005); Valerie Kennedy, “Orientalism in the Victorian Era,” n.d. At Oxford Research Encyclopedias: Literature (http://literature.oxfordre.com), accessed 2/18; Federico Luisetti, “Nietzsche’s Orientalist Biopolitics”, 2010. At BioPolítica (biopolitica.unsw.edu.au), accessed 4/16; Ian A. Morrison, “Orientalism and the Construction of the Apolitical Buddhist Subject.” In Routledge Handbook of Global Citizenship Studies (Routledge, 2014); Zaki Nahaboo, “Subverting Orientalism: Political Subjectivity in Edmund Burke’s India and Liberal Multiculturalism.” In Citizenship After Orientalism: An Unfinished Project (Routledge, 2014); Jennifer Rich, An Introduction to Critical Theory (Humanities-Ebooks, 2007); Zafer Şafak, “An Outlook on Postcolonialism Through the Ethos of Orientalism by Edward Said.” Trakya Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi 16 (2014); John Kuo Wei Tchen, New York before Chinatown: Orientalism and the Shaping of American Culture, 1776-1882 (Johns Hopkins, 1999). Orientalist Politics: Debjani Ganguly, Caste, Colonialism and Counter-Modernity: Notes on a Postcolonial Hermeneutics of Caste (Routledge, 2005); Marta Kollárová, “Good or Bad Agents? Western Fascination with Women and the Construction of Female Objects during the ISIS/ISIL Crisis.” In Gendering War and Peace Reporting: Some Insights – Some Missing Links (Nordicom, 2016); Gordon White & Roger Goodman, “Welfare Orientalism and the Search for an East Asian Welfare Model.” In The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State (Routledge, 1998); Jasmin Zine, "Anti-Islamophobia Education as Transformative Pedagogy: Reflections from the Educational Front Lines." American Journal of Islamic Social Sciences 21 (2004).
Scholars use this term generally to denote a wide variety of elements of popular culture that embody and communicate ideological Orientalist discourses including popular literature, the arts, motion pictures, television, circuses, vaudeville, tourism, and virtually any other element of popular culture. Popular Orientalist discourses and practices usually imagine and portray an exotic, alluring, and sometimes feminized Other. Sunaina Maira thus describes the mid- to late-1990s cultural phenomenon in the United States, "Indo-chic Orientalism," as being an example of popular Orientalism with its fascination for Indian exotica such as henna and belly dancing. Different scholars draw the boundaries between “high” and popular culture at different places. Occasionally, scholars use the terms vernacular Orientalism and, very rarely, entertainment Orientalism as synonyms for popular Orientalism.
See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Art Deco Orientalism, Comic Orientalism, Comic Book Orientalism, Commercial Orientalism, Cultural Orientalism, Demotic Orientalism, Exotic Orientalism, Faddish Orientalism, Feminist Orientalism, Folk Orientalism, Latent Orientalism, Linguistic Orientalism, Local Orientalism, Mediated Orientalism, Military Orientalism, Mythic Orientalism, Neo-Orientalism, Oriental Fiction, Oriental Look, Orientalese, Orientalist Archive, Orientalist Exotica, Orientalist Exoticism, Orientalist Fantasy, Orientalist Imagination, Orientalist Myth, Overt Orientalism, Pulp Orientalism, Seaside Orientalism, Sartorial Orientalism, Science Fiction Orientalism, Techno-Orientalism, Vernacular Orientalism, Wacky Orientalism, Xenophobic Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Mark Bevir, "The West Turns Eastward: Madame Blavatsky and the Transformation of the Occult Tradition." Journal of the American Academy of Religion 62 (1994); Sanjukta Ghosh, “’Con-fusing’ Exotica: Producing India in U. S. Advertising.” In Gender, Race, and Class in Media: A Text-Reader (Sage, 2003); Malreddy P. Kumar, “’Pulp Orientalism’: Endosmotic banality, Terra Necro and “Splintered” Subjects in Dan Fesperman’s The Warlord’s Son.” Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48 (2012); Suzanne Marchand, “Orientalistic and Popular Orientalism in Fin de Siécle Germany.” In After One Hundred Years: The 1910 Exhibition ‘Meisterwerke Muhammedanischer Kunst’ Reconsidered (Brill, 2010); Adrienne L. McLean, “The Thousand Ways There Are to Move: Camp and Oriental Dance in the Hollywood Musicals of Jack Cole.” In Visions of the East: Orientalism in Film (Rutgers, 1997); Hsu-Ming Teo, “American Popular Culture Through the Lens of Saidian and Post-Saidian Orientalist Critiques.” Critical Race and Whiteness Studies 10 (2014); M. S. Veena & P. V. Ramanathan, “New Orientalism in Literature: A Critical Overview.” The Criterion 4 (2013); Mari Yoshihara, Embracing the East: White Women and American Orientalism (Oxford, 2003).
Scholars of Orientalism use this term usually to describe forms of ideological Orientalism that are the opposite of Edward W. Said’s description of negative Orientalism in his book, Orientalism (1978). Said there portrays Western Orientalism as being an ideology that stereotypes Asians as being essentially inferior to the West. In negative Orientalism, the (Western) Self denigrates the (Oriental) Other. Positive Orientalism is the opposite: the Western Self respects, admires, and values the Oriental Other. Scholars of positive Orientalism thus often contend that Said’s analysis is one-sided and almost entirely overlooks the fact that historically people in the West have often admired the Orient. They point to, for example: (1) 19th century American Transcendentalism’s admiration for ancient Indian spirituality and philosophy; (2) 19th and earlier 20th century German scholarly and popular admiration for the ancient Aryan race; and (3) the post-World War II admiration in the West for East and Southeast Asian economic success. More largely, scholars, argue that European and American Romanticism has often evinced a positive attitude toward things Oriental; and Western artists, critics, and scholars often have a high regard for what they take to be the aesthetics and the beauty of Asia. In general, then, positive Orientalisms to varying degrees display admiration for Oriental religions, cultures, philosophies, learning, and arts. They respect the East, seek to be open to its influences, and at times see in it a model for the West itself. They find the East exciting, fascinating, and many Westerners believe that Asian religions are highly spiritual and teach harmony and well-being. Students of aesthetic Orientalism at times argue that the Western engagement with Asian arts can be creative, exciting, and enrich the West in many ways. Some scholars have concluded in the face of all of this that positive Orientalism represents a significant alternative Orientalism to negative Saidian Orientalism.
Scholars have increasingly, however, become aware of the fact that the notion of positive Orientalism is more complicated than the simple equation that negative Orientalists denigrate Asia while positive Orientalists admire it. The key point is that positive Orientalisms are still Orientalisms—that is, they still imagine and construct “the Orient” as having an essential, timeless identity, which has little to do with actual Asian realities. Thus, for example, Western scholars and others imagine that Asian Buddhism is essentially a meditative religion that teaches wisdom, harmony, and tranquility—a fanciful recreation of Buddhism that is ignorant of the many different ways real-life Buddhists actually practice their religion. Positive Orientalists, that is, still engage in stereotyping Asians as “Orientals” by seeing in them what they want to see and ignoring what they do not want to see. They still act as if they themselves are the ones who decide what Orientals “are really like” and in a real sense consume them as a kind of commodity to the extent that some scholars have noted that the Asian tourist industry represents an important and lucrative form of positive Orientalism. It trades on the fact that Western tourists imagine Asia to be exotic, fascinating, and alluring (and, more darkly, populated by dusky, enticing, and willing maidens or boy toys). Furthermore, scholars also note that positive Orientalism has an almost yin-and-yang relationship with negative Orientalism. First, positive Orientalists often see only certain aspects of the Orient as being positive while Asians overall continue to be seen as ignorant, backward, passive, and so forth. Second, as indicated above, positive Orientalists still stereotype Asians as Orientals, an inherently negative treatment of them even if the stereotypes appear to be positive. Third, positive Orientalisms by their very nature imply deficiencies in the West. Asians are seen as being highly spiritual in light of a Western lack of spirituality. East Asia is admired for its economic prowess in light of a less dynamic Western economy. Scholars thus contend that positive Orientalisms are also negative Occidentalisms. It should be noted, finally, that use of this term dates back at least to the early 20th century when a positive Orientalism was a sense that some aesthetic quality—architecture or San Francisco’s Chinatown, for example—communicates a good (positive) feeling or sense of the exotic Orient. [revised 6/19]
See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Affirmative Orientalism, Bloomsbury Orientalism, Buddhist Orientalism, Celticism, Commercial Orientalism, Comparative Orientalism, Cosmopolitan Orientalism, Counter-Orientalism, Dissident Orientalism, Flexible Orientalism, Green Orientalism, Humanistic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Irish Orientalism, Jewish Orientalism, Liberal Orientalism, Marxist Orientalism, Negative Orientalism, New Ages Orientalism, Occidentalism, Orientalism in Reverse, Orientalist Tourism, Peripheral Orientalism, Reverse Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Science Fiction Orientalism, Scottish Orientalism, Sinological Orientalism, Strategic Orientalism, Subversive Orientalism, Sympathetic Orientalism, Transcendental Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Jørn Borup, “Branding Buddha – Mediatized and Commodified Buddhism as Cultural Narrative.” Journal of Global Buddhism 17 (2016); Kennet Granholm, “Locating the West: Problematizing the Western in Western Esotericism and Occultism.” In Occultism in a Global Perspective (Routledge, 2013); Thomas G. Jackson, Gothic Architecture in France, England, and Italy, v. 2 (Cambridge, 1915); Emma Kowal, Trapped in the Gap: Doing Good in Indigenous Australia (Berghahn Books, 2015); L. H. M. Ling, "Orientalism ReFashioned: 'Eastern Moon' Reflecting on 'Western Waters' Reflecting Back on the East China Sea," 2016. At ResearchGate (www.researchgate.net), accessed 6/19; David L. Sweet, Avant-garde Orientalism: The Eastern 'Other' in Twentieth-Century Travel Narrative and Poetry (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017); Arthur Versluis, American Transcendentalism and Asian Religions (Oxford, 1993); Gordon White & Roger Goodman, “Welfare Orientalism and the Search for an East Asian Welfare Model.” In The East Asian Welfare Model: Welfare Orientalism and the State (Routledge, 1998); Thomas B. Wilson, “Old Chinatown.” Overland Monthly 58 (1911); Ouyang Yu, "Lawson, Gunn and the ‘White Chinaman’: A Look at How Chinese are Made White in Henry Lawson and Mrs. Aeneas Gunn's Writings." LiNQ 30 (2016).
Scholars use this term and the term Orientalist positivism to describe a particular approach to the study of the Arab Middle East and Islam based on the philosophical theory of positivism, which holds that all of reality, human as well as natural, can be codified in absolutely reliable laws and requires that all knowledge be empirical and secular. The roots of this theory are found in the French Enlightenment. European scholars have thus used positivistic Orientalism to imagine and construct “Orientals” as having an essential, timeless nature, which these scholars believed could be known to them scientifically. Orientals, meanwhile, supposedly lacked the tools of positivist, empirical science and thus could not know themselves. Positivistic Orientalism is thought to have begun in the earlier 19th century and remained influential even after World War II. Although scholars generally do not specifically link positivistic Orientalism to the work of Edward W. Said, it is this kind of academic approach that Said criticized in Orientalism (1978). These terms, though not rare, are not frequently used.
See also: Academic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Philosophical Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Pavan K. Malreddy, Orientalism, Terrorism, Indigenism: South Asian Readings in Postcolonialism (SAGE, 2015); Chase F. Robinson, “Introduction.” In The Formation of the Islamic World Sixth to Eleventh Centuries (Cambridge, 2011); Wendy M. K. Shaw, “The Islam in Islamic Art History: Secularism and Public Discourse.” Journal of Art Historiography 6 (2012).
Postcolonial (Post-Colonial) Orientalism
Scholars use this term usually to describe the ways in which ideological Orientalist values and ideas remain embedded in more contemporary (“post-colonial”) discourses, institutions, and practices as largely hidden assumptions and unintended attitudes. Postcolonial Orientalism can be found particularly among academics, writers, and those in other cultural institutions of former colonies of the West and other peoples that have been the objects of ideological Orientalist prejudices. This term is thus used to describe the ways in which Orientalist habits of mind persist as forms of hidden Orientalism.
See also: Academic Orientalism, Colonial Orientalism, Disguised Orientalism, Hidden Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Internalized Orientalism, Modern Orientalism, Self-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Carol A. Breckenridge & Peter van der Veers, “Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament.” In Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament: Perspectives on South Asia (U. of Pennsylvania, 1993); Sobhanlal D. Gupta, “Imperialism and Colonialism: Towards a Postcolonial Understanding.” In Science, Technology, Imperialism, and War (Pearson Longman, 2007); Eric R. Hayot, Chinese Dreams: Pound, Brecht, Tel quell (U. of Michigan, 2003); Peter Heehs, “Shades of Orientalism: Paradoxes and Problems in Indian Historiography.” History and Theory 42, (2003); Vasant Kalwar, The Postcolonial Orient: The Politics of Difference and the Project of Provincialising Europe (Brill, 2014); Anastasia Valassopoulos, Contemporary Arab Women Writers: Cultural Expression in Context (Routledge, 2007).
Scholars generally use this term to describe Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices directed primarily at East Asia and especially Japan, which rely on electronic entertainment and educational media. Whether covertly or overtly, these discourses, institutions, and practices reinforce the dualistic divide between East and West by identifying an essential, imagined, and stereotypical East. At times, the contrast drawn is used to make judgments on the inferiority of the West to the East, but more often the contrast is between a superior West and inferior East. [5/16]
See also: Cultural Orientalism, Dissident Orientalism, Popular Orientalism, Techno-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Ataullah B. Kopanski, “Orientalism Revisited: Bernard Lewis’ School of Political Islamography.” Intellectual Discourses 8 (2000); Inoue Masamichi, English Abstract of “’Japan’ as a Sanctuary: Transformation and Dissolution of Orientalism on a University Campus in the United States,” 2014. At CiNii (http://ci.nii.ac.jp), accessed 5/16; Leonard P. Sanders, “Postmodern Orientalism: William Gibson, Cyberpunk and Japan” (Ph.D. diss., Massey U., 2008); Yoshio Sugimoto, An Introduction to Japanese Society, 4th ed. (Cambridge, 2014); Timothy Yu, “Oriental Cities, Postmodern Futures: Naked Lunch, Blade Runner, and Necromancer.” MELIUS 33 (2008); Timothy Yu, Race and the Avant-garde: Experimental and Asian American Poetry Since 1965 (Stanford, 2009).
Scholars use this term usually in one of three distinct ways. First and most often, they use it to refer to the ongoing study of ideological Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices after the publication of Edward W. Said’s Orientalism in 1978. Post-Orientalism, thus, is the continuation and expansion of Said’s critique of classical Orientalism in all of its forms. Second, some scholars argue that more recent, critical scholarly discourses concerning ideological Orientalism continue to fall into the same traps as ideological Orientalism itself as a form of hidden Orientalism. In this usage, thus, Post-Orientalism represents a largely covert continuity with ideological Orientalism where in the first usage it represents a break from ideological Orientalism. Third and rarely, this term is used to describe the application of ideological Orientalist categories by the Other (the “Orientals”) against Western ideological Orientalism as a form of reverse Orientalism.
See also: Classical Orientalism, Critical Orientalism, Hidden Orientalism, Old Orientalism, Post-Saidian Orientalism, Reverse Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Katherine Binhammer, et al., “Srinivas Aravamudan’s Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel: A Roundtable Discussion.” Lumen 33 (2014); Philippe Calia, “’Representing the Other’ Today: Contemporary Photography in the Light of the Postcolonial Debate (With a Special Focus on India).” Revista Forma 4 (2011); Hamid Dabashi, Post-Orientalism: Knowledge and Power in a Time of Terror (Transaction, 2009); Christina Klein, Cold War Orientalism: Asia in the Middlebrow Imagination, 1945-1961 (U. of California, 2003); Malreddy P. Kumar, "Introduction: Orientalism(s) after 9/11." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48 (2012); Mutapha K. Pasha, “Civilizations, Postorientalism, and Islam.” In Civilizational Identity: The Production and Reproduction of "Civilizations” in International Relations (Palgrave Macmillan, 2007); Douglas Peers, “Orientalism.” In Encyclopedia of Historians and Historical Writing, v. 2 (Fitzroy Dearborn, 1999); Gyan Prakash, "Writing Post-Orientalist Histories of the Third World: Indian Historiography Is Good To Think." In Colonialism and Culture (U. of Michigan, 1992).
Scholars use this term usually in two closely related ways both of which acknowledge the foundational contribution of Edward W. Said to the study of Orientalism. First, most scholars use it to describe developments especially in the historical study of Orientalism by which scholars after Said see Orientalism as being a complex, multifaceted, and dynamic phenomenon that cannot be understood merely as static and dualistic. Scholars after Said, that is, seek to treat Orientalism in ways that do not replicate the dualistic, essentializing worldview of ideological Orientalism but transcends it. Second, much more rarely this term is used in the opposite way to suggest a narrow, ideological understanding of Orientalism dominated by Said himself. It should be noted that the actual term, “post-Saidian Orientalism” is used only rarely while the term “post-Saidian Orientalist[s]” is much more common.
See also: Critical Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Post-Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Michael J. Franklin, “Representing India in Drawing-Room and Classroom; or, Miss Owenson and ‘Those Gay Gentlemen, Brahma, Vishnu, and Co.’” In Interrogating Orientalism: Contextual Approaches and Pedagogical Practices (Ohio State, 2006); Nitin Sinha, Communication and Colonialism in Eastern India: Bihar, 1760s-1880s (Anthem, 2012); Lucie Storchová, “'Scholarly Travel Writing' Between Orientalism and Oriental Studies: Discourses of Othering in the Travelogue of Prof. Felix Tauer (1893-1981).” In Egypt and Austria V: Egypt's Heritage in Europe (Univerza na Primorskem, 2009); Hsu-Ming Teo, “American Popular Culture Through the Lens of Saidian and Post-Saidian Orientalist Critiques.” Critical Race and Whiteness Studies 10 (2014).
Post-Victorian Orientalism. See Neo-Victorian Orientalism.
Post-Zionist Orientalism. See Zionist Orientalism.
Associated primarily with the work of Michael Haldrup, Lasse Koefoed, and Kirsten Simonsen, scholars use this term generally to describe the ways in which cultures express Orientalist prejudices and stereotyping through mundane, ordinary, and everyday practices and perceptions including such things as the dress, speech, physical appearance, food, and even ways of touching the Other.
See also: Banal Orientalism, Culinary Orientalism, Cultural Orientalism, Popular Orientalism, Sartorial Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Karen Culcasi & Mahmut Gokmen, “The Face of Danger: Beards in the U.S. Media’s Representations of Arabs, Muslims, and Middle Easterners.” Aether 8 (2011); Michael Haldrup, et al., "Practical Orientalism: Bodies, Everyday Life and the Construction of Otherness." Geografiska Annaler. Series B 88 (2006); Michael Haldrup, et al., "Practising Fear: Encountering O/other Bodies.” In Fear: Critical Geopolitics and Everyday Life (Ashgate, 2008); Tyler Wall, “Philanthropic Soldiers, Practical Orientalism, and the Occupation of Iraq.” Identities: Global Studies in Culture and Power 18 (2011).
Pre-Colonial (Precolonial) Orientalism
Although rare, this term is used by a few scholars to refer to the origins of ideological Orientalism among Europeans stationed in India prior to the colonial era. Ganesh Ramarishanan sees those origins in developments in Britain, and Sheldon Pollock, who also uses the term pre-Orientalist Orientalism, observes them in Germany.
See also: Early Orientalism, Nascent Orientalism, Pre-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Siraj Ahmed, “Orientalism and the Permanent Fix of War.” In The Postcolonial Enlightenment: Eighteenth-Century Colonialism and Postcolonial Theory (Oxford, 2009); Rajiv Malhotra, The Battle for Sanskrit: Is Sanskrit Political or Sacred, Oppressive or Liberation, Dead or Alive? (HarperCollins, 2016); Ganesh Ramakrishanan, “The Shallowness of Pollock’s ‘Deep Orientalism,’” 2016. At Indian People’s Congress (https://indianpeoplescongress.wordpress.com), accessed 6/16.
Pre-Critical Orientalism. See Critical Orientalism.
Although not used in a technical way, scholars have used this term to describe the ways in which ideological Orientalism creates mental barriers and preconceived stereotypes that prevent those who hold Orientalist prejudices from seeing the realties of the actual Orient. As scholars use it, this term reflects Edward W. Said’s understanding of Orientalism.
See also: Ideological Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Jim Mac Laughlin, Location and Dislocation in Contemporary Irish Society: Perspectives on Irish Emigration and Irish Identities in a Global (Cork U., 1997.); Anna Piela, Muslim Women Online: Faith and Identity in Virtual Space (Routledge, 2012); Zacharias P. Thundy, Buddha & Christ: Nativity Stories & Indian Traditions (E. J. Brill, 1993).
Scholars use this infrequently used term generally in two distinct ways. First, a few scholars use it to describe ideological Orientalism in its earlier stages before roughly the 19th century. As a stage in the development of Orientalism, pre-modern Orientalism is to be distinguished from the terms pre-Orientalism, proto-Orientalism, and nascent Orientalism, which are used to point to discourses, institutions, and practices that in one way or another foreshadowed and contributed to the emergence of ideological Orientalism. Second and still more rarely, this term is used to refer to earlier stages in the development of Orientalism when religion played a major role in Western conceptions (imaginings) of the Orient.
See also: Early Orientalism, Enlightenment Orientalism, Evangelical Orientalism, Medieival Orientalism, Modern Orientalism, Nascent Orientalism, Pre-Orientalism, Proto-Orientalism, Religious Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Urs App, "William Jones’s Ancient Theology." Sino-Platonic Papers 191 (2009); Ziauddin Sardar, Orientalism (Open University, 1999).
Scholars use this term usually in one of two ways. First, they use it to describe a period in the historical development of ideological Orientalism before it emerged in its complete, classical form. The dating for the beginning of this period varies from the 15th century to the 18th and some scholars consider it to be the era prior to the spread of European colonialism. This usage is all but identical to that of the term proto-Orientalism, and as such it is questioned and contested by a number of scholars some of whom doubt the possibility of determining a single, definable pre-Orientalist era. Second, this term is used to describe the study of the Orient prior to the publication of Edward W. Said’s Orientalism in 1978.
See also: Academic Orientalism, Early Orientalism, Enlightenment Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Nascent Orientalism, Pre-colonial Orientalism, Pre-modern Orientalism, Proto-Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Ananda Abeysekara, Colors of the Robe: Religion, Identity, and Difference (U.of South Carolina, 2002); Srinivas Aravamudan, Enlightenment Orientalism: Resisting the Rise of the Novel (U. of Chicago, 2012); Nicholas B. Dirks, “South Asian Studies: Futures Past.” In The Politics of Knowledge: Area Studies and the Disciplines (U. of California Press, 2004); Bronwen Douglas, Across the Great Divide: Journeys in History and Anthropology (Harwood Academic, 1998); Kim M. Phillips, Before Orientalism: Asian Peoples and Cultures in European Travel Writing, 1245-1510 (U. of Pennsylvania, 2014); Edward W. Said, The World, the Text, and the Critic (Harvard, 1983).
Pre-Orientalist Orientalism. See Pre-Colonial Orientalism.
A few scholars have used this very rarely used term as a synonym for ideological Orientalism as described by Edward W. Said in his book, Orientalism (1978).
See also: Ideological Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Frank T. Boyle, Swift as Nemesis: Modernity and Its Satirist (Stanford, 2000); Bernard Faure, Double Exposure: Cutting Across Buddhist and Western Discourses (Stanford, 2004).
Scholars usually use this term in one of three distinct ways. First, in the 19th century, biblical scholars and others used it in a religious sense to describe historical periods when religious sensibilities were supposedly “Oriental,” that is child-like, undeveloped, and backward. This usage occasionally appears in more recent studies about the 19th century. Second, some scholars use this term as a synonym for ideological Orientalism to describe Western prejudices against Islam and Muslims. Third, some scholars of the history of Judaism use this term to describe the perception either by Jews from Western Europe or by non-Jewish Westerners that Eastern and Asiatic Jews were primitively “Oriental,” that is backward socially, economically, culturally, and religiously. [8/16]
See also: Biblical Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Zionist Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Modern Usage: Jerold S. Auerbach, Are We One?; Jewish Identity in the United States and Israel (Rutgers, 2001); James Cockayne, “Islam and International Humanitarian Law: From a Clash to a Conversation between Civilizations.” International Review of the Red Cross 84 (2002); Gudren Krämer, “On Difference and Understanding: The Use and Abuse of the Study of Islam.” ISIM Newsletter 5 (2000); Amy Shevitz, Jewish Communities on the Ohio River: A History (U. of Kentucky, 2007); Brian Stableford, “Isoline and the Serpent-Flower,” n.d. At The Brian Stableford Website (www.philsp.com), accessed 8/16. 19th Century Usage: Herder, “Ecclesiastes.” Western Monthly Magazine 3 (1834); James Macgregor, The Churches of Galatia (T. & T. Clark, 1879); Goldwin Smith, Lectures and Essays (Macmillan Co., 1881); David Wykes, Evelyn Waugh: A Literary Life (St. Martin's Press, 1999).
This term and the term Orientalist profession are fairly frequently used. Scholars have used them in two historical contexts. First, beginning in the 19th century, scholars have used these terms to describe the development of the field of Oriental studies (as part of a more general European and American academic revolution) from one dominated by amateurs to an academic field that developed the rigor, standards, and institutions and publications of a more “scientific” field of study based on trained, knowledgeable, and objective research. It was no longer seen as a matter of personal tastes and interests but rather as a fully academic field of study. Second, by the 1960s, however, a few Arab scholars began to challenge the premise that the Orientalist profession was indeed truly professional, which challenge culminated in the publication of Orientalism by Edward W. Said in 1978. Accepting the traditional meaning of professional Orientalism, he claimed that in fact professional Orientalists imagined and constructed an essentially and irredeemably inferior fairy-tale Orient of their own making. Said provoked a sometimes strident debate as a number scholars rose to defend the Orientalists’ profession from his attacks while many others joined him in his challenge. The debate over Orientalism can thus be seen as originally in important part a debate about whether or not its practitioners adhered to the standards of professional academics. Were they objective, and did they produce knowledge that had anything to do with the realities of Asia? Scholars of Orientalism now use these terms most frequently in the context of this debate and often cite Said’s comments on professional Orientalism; and it is widely understood that the Saidians have “won” the debate at least to the extent that today few Asian studies scholars would describe themselves as “professional Orientalists.” The debate itself continues, although most scholars have come to the conclusion that Said’s challenge of the profession was both correct in many ways but also too sweeping and too selective in its treatment of the actual field of professional Orientalism. [9/18]
See also: Academic Orientalism, Amateur Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, International Congress of Orientalists, Personal Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Scientific Orientalism, Traditional Orientalism (First Usage).
Sources & Examples: Professional Orientalism: Asiya Chowdhury, “The Persistent Metaphor: Gender in the Representations of the Cairene House by Edward W. Lane and Hassan Fathy” (M.A. thesis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1993); Edward W. Said, Orientalism (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978); Daniel M.Varisco, Reading Orientalism: Said and the Unsaid (U. of Washington, 2007); Fatih Varol, "Edward Said vs Michel Foucault: The Divergence of Perspectives on Knowledge, Truth and Power." Ankara Üniversitesi SBF Dergisi 72 (2017). Orientalist Profession: Christopher Berg & Melanie Shaw, “Debating Controversial History: A Twenty-First Century Re-Appraisal of the Orientalist Debate, its Key Actors, and its Future.” International Journal of Learner Diversity and Identities 20 (2014); Magnus Forseth, “Representations of Chinese Rock: An Analysis of Contemporary Reviews of Chinese Rock- Groups” (M.A. thesis, U. of Oslo, 2011); A. L. Macfie, Orientalism (Longman, 2002); François Pouillon, “On Edward Said.” At Academia.edu (www.academia.edu), accessed 9/18; Zahia S. Salhi, “The Maghreb and the Occident: Towards the Construction of an Occidentalist Discourse.” In Orientalism Revisited: Art, Land and Voyage (Routlege, 2013).
Progressive Orientalism. See Liberal Orientalism.
Projective Orientalism. See Orientalist Projection.
While scholars very rarely use this term as such, they do much more frequently describe the many and various forms and manifestations of ideological Orientalism as being “protean," that is readily, easily changeable. Orientalisms, thus, can take many different shapes, can be highly adaptable, and can be seen as both laudable and objectionable. The point scholars often make is that part of the power of such Orientalisms lies in their “protean nature,” which also allows them to appropriate other movements and cultural themes, such as European Romanticism as but one example. [3/18]
See also: Covert Orientalism, Hidden Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Kristan Tetens, “Sir Thomas Henry Hall Caine, Dramatist, with a Special Study of Mahomet (1890) and Its Contexts” (Ph.D. diss., Leicester, 2015); Deborah Wyrick, “Unknown Unknowns, Unknown Knowns, and the Repetitions of History,” 2014. At Debblog 2.0 (http://debsbookblog2194.blogspot.com), accessed 3/18.
Scholars use both this term and the term nascent Orientalism to describe the origins, roots, and pre-history of Orientalism as well as to describe the actual historical emergence of Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices. As such, the study of proto-Orientalism or nascent Orientalism involves discerning the definition, scope, and boundaries of ideological Orientalism. While scholars sometimes use these terms similarly to the term early Orientalism, technically these terms focus more on that which anticipates and foreshadows the emergence of Orientalism rather than on an earliest stage in the development of Orientalism itself. [revised 12/18]
See also: Early Orientalism, Medieval Orientalism, Nascent Orientalism, Pre-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Richmond Barbour, Before Orientalism: London's Theatre of the East, 1576-1626 (Cambridge, 2003); Ivan D. Kalmar, Early Orientalism: Imagined Islam and the Notion of Sublime Power (Routledge, 2012); Ivan D. Kalmar & Derek J. Penslar, Orientalism and the Jews (Brandeis, 2005); Sharon Kinoshita, “Deprovincializing the Middle Ages.” In The Worlding Project: Doing Cultural Studies in the Era of Globalization (New Pacific Press, 2007); Markus Vink, Encounters on the Opposite Coast: The Dutch East India Company and the Nayak State of Madurai in the Seventeenth Century (Brill, 2016).
Pseudo-Orientalism. See False Orientalism.
Psychiatric Orientalism. See Medical Orientalism.
Scholars generally use this term and, less frequently, the term Orientalist psychology to describe a set of stereotypical attitudes with which Western Orientalists, including trained psychologists, imagine and construct (Oriental) Others as having essential characteristics that are clearly different from and in at least some ways inferior to the West. In particular, scholars argue that Western (and many Asian) psychologists believe that Asians are defined by a group mentality or “group self” that overrides their individual identities. Asians supposedly live to please society at the denial of their personal individuality. Drawing on Edward W. Said’s understanding of Orientalism (1978), Brinda J. Metha applies the term "psychological Orientalism" particularly to the experience of Asian women, arguing that the male psyche sees women as a threat and deals with that threat by creating and imagining an idealized, essential “true womanhood,” which dehumanizes Asian women and seeks to control them. While they seldom use these terms, scholars who write about the impact of Orientalism on the academic field of psychology generally note that the field shares in the larger history of academic Orientalism, which means that historically it has (usually unwittingly) transformed Orientalist stereotypes and prejudices into psychological “principles” that imagine and construct Asians as having essential, largely unchanging identities dictated by their cultures. Asian psychologists frequently accept these principles as their own because of the international dominance of Western psychology. This term is not frequently used.
See also: Academic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Orientalist Projection, Saidian Orientalism, Self-Orientalism, Sexual Orientalism, Wacky Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: C. Fred Alford, Think No Evil: Korean Values in the Age of Globalization (Cornell, 1999); Sunil Bahtia, “Orientalism in Euro-American and Indian Psychology: Historical Representations of "Natives" in Colonial and Postcolonial Contexts.” History of Psychology 5 (2002); Brinda J. Mehta, “(De-) Orientalizing the Female Self: Selected Feminine Characterizations in Wole Soyinka’s The Interpreters, Season of Anomy and Beyond the Horizon by the Ghananian Author Amma Darko.” OKIKE 35 (1997); Brinda J. Mehta, Diasporic (Dis)locations: Indo-Caribbean Women Writers Negotiate the Kala Pani (U. of the West Indies, 2004); Patrick O’Dougherty, The Stockholm Syndrome Project (Irish Catholic Revolution Publishing Co., 2004).
Scholars generally use this term and the term Orientalist pulp to describe the ways in which Western popular, sensational publications and media imagine and construct (Oriental) Others. They include books, magazines, comics, movies, and other publications commonly known as “pulp” (i.e publications that are cheap, low quality, popular, and sensational ). Because of the popular nature of the genre, Orientalist pulp are a superficial, blatant, and even crude form of literary Orientalism and cinematic Orientalism. Its stereotypes are often racist and/or sexist, portraying Asians (especially Arabs but also East Asians) as erotic, sly, immoral, dangerous, violent, and utterly alien among other traits. Scholars note that Orientalist pulp print publications are particularly known for their exotic, sometimes lurid art work including especially magazine covers of the 1930s. Historically, this genre first appeared in the earlier 19th century, and the use of these terms is not rare. [revised 9/18]
See also: Aesthetic Orientalism, Blatant Orientalism, Comic Orientalism, Comic Book Orientalism, Cinematic Orientalism, Cultural Orientalism, Hard Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Literary Orientalism, New Age Orientalism, Oriental Fiction, Orientalist Fiction, Popular Orientalism, Techno-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Jumana Bayeh & Sahar Amer, “Community Activism and Creative Practice in Australia: An Interview with Paula Abood.” Mashriq & Mahjar 4 (2017); Pavan K. Malreddy, Orientalism, Terrorism, Indigenism: South Asian Readings in Postcolonialism (SAGE, 2015); Laetitia Nanquette, Orientalism Versus Occidentalism: Literary and Cultural Imaging Between France and Iran Since the Islamic Revolution (I.B. Tauris, 2013); David Scott, "Rohmer's' Orient'-Pulp Orientalism?." Archiv Orientalni 80 (2012).
Benjamin Daniel Fisler coined this very rarely used term to describe the use of blackface puppets as a medium for racialized Orientalism in the American theatre.
See also: Cultural Orientalism, Racial Orientalism, Theatrical Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Benjamin D. Fisler, "The Phenomenology of Racialism: Blackface Puppetry in American Theatre, 1872-1939” (Ph.D. diss., Maryland, 2005).