Glossary of Orientalisms
Note: in the text of each entry, users will find terms for Orientalisms sometimes highlighted in bold and sometimes highlighted in italics. Bold Orientalisms (e.g. Aboriginal Orientalism) refer to main entries in this glossary. Italicized Orientalisms (e.g. Afro Orientalism) do not have their own entry but are referred to in an another entry, which is indicated by a "See" entry (e.g. Afro Orientalism. See Black Orientalism).
Idealist Orientalism. See Hegelian Orientalism.
Most scholars today use the term "Orientalism" as a short hand way of referring to this term, which, defined more narrowly, describes the ways in which large, influential numbers of Western scholars, artists, political leaders, opinion makers, and the public at large systematically imagine and construct the peoples and cultures of "the Orient" (including Arabs, Muslims, and Asians in general) as having essentially different and unchanging natures. Defined more broadly, ideological Orientalism encompasses the attitudes directed toward any supposedly exotic, unchanging Other who is taken to be essentially different from one's own Self and culture, whether "Oriental" or otherwise. The modern-day study of ideological Orientalism begins with Edward W. Said (Orientalism, 1978) who argues that especially academic Orientalism historically perpetuated a set of prejudices concerning "Orientals" that frames them, among other things, as being exotic, inferior, incapable of rational thought, emotional, incapable of change, despotic, sensual, and in all these ways the opposite of the West. Said described Orientalism as being imperialistic, colonialist, racist, and sexist. It was thus a way of defining, controlling, and exercising power over alien Others. Said's work was immediately controversial and precipitated an ongoing debate concerning the nature of ideological Orientalism, which has resulted in a more complex, nuanced understanding of it. There are forms of ideological Orientalism that are positive in which the Other is seen as being superior. In other cases, Orientalist attitudes are relatively benign, partial, or insignificant. They also change over time. Or again, these (Oriental) Others themselves often internalize the prejudices directed at them, embrace those attitudes, and rework them into positive qualities. Those who are subjected to Orientalist "othering" sometimes redirect those prejudice toward their own Others, who they see as being essentially, irredeemably inferior. As scholars have grown to understand the utility and the complexity of the notion of ideological Orientalism, they have also expanded its use to describe situations in which non-Asian Others are also often treated as having essential, unchanging, and absolutely different identities. In these ways, the concept of ideological Orientalism differs from Saidian Orientalism, which is almost entirely negative and focuses on prejudices directed toward Arabs, Muslims, and Asian peoples generally. This term itself is neither rare nor common since, as noted, most scholars simply use the short-hand term, "Orientalism" to mean "ideological Orientalism." [revised 11/17]
See also: Aboriginal Orientalism, Abstract Orientalism, Academic Orientalism, Accidental Orientalism, Administrative Orientalism, Aesthetic Orientalism, Affirmative Orientalism, Aggressive Orientalism, Amateur Orientalism, Ambivalent Orientalism, American Orientalism, Ancient Orientalism (Contemporary), Ancient Orientalism (Traditional), Anti-Islamic Orientalism, Anti-Semitic Orientalism, Arab Orientalism, Arabic Orientalism, Arch Orientalism, Architectural Orientalism, Asian Orientalism, Authentic Orientalism, Avant-garde Orientalism, Barbaric Orientalism, Banal Orientalism, Belated Orientalism, Binary Orientalism, Blatant Orientalism, Bloomsbury Orientalism, Bourgeois Orientalism, Brown Orientalism, Canadian Orientalism, Canonical Orientalism, Caribbean Orientalism, Cartographical Orientalism, Categorical Orientalism, Catholic Orientalism, Celticism, Chinese Orientalism, Chauvinistic Orientalism, Christian Orientalism, Classical Orientalism, Comic Orientalism, Comic Book Orientalism, Comparative Orientalism, Comparativist Orientalism, Consumer Orientalism, Contemporary Orientalism, Conventional Orientalism, Cooperative Orientalism, Creeping Orientalism, Critical Orientalism, Crude Orientalism, Cybernetic Orientalism, Dialectical Orientalism, Double Orientalism, Dogmatic Orientalism, Early Modern Orientalism, Eastern Orientalism, Economic Orientalism, Educational Orientalism, Electronic Orientalism, Emergent Orientalism, Ethnocentric Orientalism, Ethnographic Orientalism, Eurocentric Orientalism, Euro-Orientalism, European Orientalism, Evangelical Orientalism, Fashion Orientalism, Flexible Orientalism, Gendered (Gender) Orientalism, Global Orientalism, Greek Orientalism (Ancient), Greek Orientalism (Modern), Green Orientalism, Hard Orientalism, Haunted Orientalism, Hegelian Orientalism, High-tech Orientalism, Historical Orientalism, Homoerotic Orientalism, Humanistic Orientalism, Imperial Orientalism, Implicit Orientalism, Infantile Orientalism, Indirect Orientalism, Inner City Orientalism, Intellectual Orientalism, International Congress of Orientalists, International Orientalism, Institutional Orientalism, Irish Orientalism, Islamic Orientalism, Jewish Orientalism, Journalistic Orientalism, Kemalist Orientalism, Late Orientalism, Legal Orientalism, Liberal Orientalism, Literary Orientalism, Local Orientalism, Mainstream Orientalism, Male Orientalism, Maritime Orientalism, Mature Orientalism, Mediated Orientalism, Methodological Orientalism, Micro-Orientalism, Military Orientalism, Muslim Orientalism, Mythic Orientalism, Native Orientalism, Negative Orientalism, Neo-Orientalism, Nesting Orientalism, Nuclear Orientalism, Occidentalism, Official Orientalism, Old Orientalism, Oriental Enthusiasm, Oriental Fad, Oriental Fiction, Oriental Look, Oriental Orientalism, Oriental Poetry, Oriental Rage, Oriental's Orientalism, Orientalese, Orientalism Proper, Orientalism in Reverse, Orientalism Theory, Orientalist Anthropology, Orientalist Archive, Orientalist Common Sense, Orientalist Epistemology, Orientalist Ethnography, Orientalist Fad, Orientalist Fantasy, Orientalist Fiction, Orientalist Gaze, Orientalist Idealism, Orientalist Imagination, Orientalist Literature, Orientalist Myth, Orientalist Nostalgia, Orientalist Parasite, Orientalist Projection, Orientalist Satire, Orientalist Science, Orientalist Teleology, Orientalist Tourism, Orthodox Orientalism, Orientology, Ottoman Orientalism, Overt Orientalism, Paradoxical Orientalism, Paranoid Orientalism, Paternalistic [Paternal] Orientalism, Patronizing Orientalism, Peripheral Orientalism, Philological Orientalism, Philosophical Orientalism, Pictorial Orientalism, Poetic Orientalism, Pop Orientalism, Positive Orientalism, Postcolonial Orientalism, Postmodern Orientalism, Pre-Modern Orientalism, Pre-Saidian Orientalism, Primary Orientalism, Professional Orientalism, Protestant Orientalism, Proto-Orientalism, Practical Orientalism (Post-Said), Pragmatic Orientalism, Psychological Orientalism, Pulp Orientalism, Quasi-Orientalism, Racist Orientalism, Relational Orientalism, Republican Orientalism, Resurgent Orientalism, Romantic Orientalism, Russian Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Science Fiction Orientalism, Scientific Orientalism, Scottish Orientalism, Seaside Orientalism, Second-hand Orientalism, Sexist Orientalism, Sexual Orientalism, Social Orientalism, Sociological Orientalism, Soft Orientalism, Soviet Orientalism, Structural Orientalism, Subversive Orientalism, Systemic Orientalism, Techno-Orientalism, Temporal Orientalism, Tertiary Orientalism, Theological Orientalism, Theoretical Orientalism, Traditional Orientalism, Transcendental Orientalism, Transorientalism, Transplanted Orientalism, Turkish Orientalism, Unconscious Orientalism, Victorientalism, Visual Orientalism, Vulgar Orientalism, Wacky Orientalism, Weberian Orientalism, Xenophobic Orientalism, Zionist Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Madeline Hsu, “Unwrapping Orientalist Constraints: Restoring Homosocial Normativity to Chinese American History.” Amerasia Journal 29 (2003); Aaron Hughes, Situating Islam: the Past and Future of an Academic Discipline (Equinox, 2007); Tea Jansson, “Challenging the Orientalist Reading of Mary Wortley Montagu´s Turkish Letters with Feminist Approaches” (Thesis, U. of Tampere, 2003); Nicholas Owen, The British Left and India: Metropolitan Anti-Imperialism, 1855-1947 (Oxford, 2007); Yahya Sadowski, "Political Islam: Asking the Wrong Questions." Annual Review of Political Science 9 (2006); Edward W. Said, Orientalism (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978); Edward W. Said, "Orientalism Reconsidered." Cultural Critique 1 (1985); Herbert R. Swanson,“Orientalism as an Ideology: the Utility of Said's Notion of Ideology for the Study of Orientalist Ideologies," 19 June 2020. At Orientalismstudies.com ().
Imaginative Orientalism. See Orientalist Imagination.
Imitation Orientalism. See False Orientalism.
Scholars use this term Scholars use this term and the very closely related terms of Imperialist Orientalism, Imperialistic Orientalism, and Orientalist Imperialism to describe policies and practices of domination associated with: (1) more narrowly, the conquest, domination, and exploitation of Asian nations and peoples by historical empires, including primarily Britain and France but also including Russia, the Hapsburg Empire, and even Japan and the Ottoman Empire; (2) more broadly, the empire-like exercise of various forms of power and exploitation by major states, particularly the United States, over Asian nations and peoples; and (3) most broadly, any dominating exercise of authority or control over another in Asian contexts. Scholars differ, thus, on whether or not these terms, especially “imperial Orientalism,” can be applied to United States since it was never technically an empire—excepting “Orientalist imperialism,” which is applied to the United States without qualm. In the context of Russia, “imperial Orientalism” refers to Russian Orientology prior to 1917. Other than the question of what nations technically fall under the rubric of “imperialism,” there are no clear patterns of usage that would distinguish one of these three terms from the others. Scholars use them very frequently: “imperial Orientalism” and “imperialist Orientalism” are used most often and at roughly the same rate while “imperialistic Orientalism” and “Orientalist imperialism” are used markedly less often.
These four terms are key synonyms for what scholars also call traditional Orientalism or classical Orientalism, which began in the late18th and early 19th centuries and ended with World War II, meaning that they are one name for the dominant form of European Orientalism in that era. It is this Orientalism that Edward W. Said documented in his seminal work, Orientalism (1978), in which he describes Orientalism as perpetuating a set of stereotypical prejudices concerning “Orientals” that was used to justify Western cultural, political, academic, literary, religious, and aesthetic domination of them. In many cases, thus, scholars see these imperial Orientalisms as being virtually identical with Saidian Orientalism, and they usually understand them to have permeated European and American societies and cultures and to be the precursor of modern and postmodern Orientalisms. While they normally use these terms as negative concepts, there are some scholars who argue that Orientalism should not always be identified with or blamed as being a source of imperialism (Andrew Wilcox, 2017). A few scholars use the term Anti-imperialist Orientalism to describe those who resist imperialism but still treat the Orient as having an essential, ideological identity, including for example Adam Smith (1723-1790) and W. E. B Dubois (1868-1963). A very few scholars use the term neo-Orientalist imperialism to describe a more recent version of “Orientalist imperialism”. In sum, scholars use these four terms pejoratively in the tradition of Said to emphasize the concept of Orientalism’s intimate relationship with the exercise of power over the (Oriental) Other and its complicity in the historical domination and exploitation of Asian peoples by the West and its empires (however defined) as well as, infrequently, by imperial Asian states. [revised 4/21]
See also: American Orientalism, Classical Orientalism, European Orientalism, Global Orientalism, Hard Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Modern Orientalism, Orientology, Positive Orientalism, Postmodern Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Traditional Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Imperial Orientalism: Mubarak Altwaiji, “American Orientalist Discourse: the Linguistic Formation and Transformation.” International Journal of English Linguistics 9 (2019); Meredith Aucock, "Through the Looking Glass: Themes in Narratives by Arabs, Americans, and Europeans from 1890 to 1960." Rice Historical Review 4 (2019); Mary Ann Fay, “International Feminism and the Women’s Movement in Egypt, 1904-1923: A Reappraisal of Categories and Legacies” (paper, “Conference on Institutions, Ideologies and Agencies Changing Family Life in the Arab Middle East,” 2003); Nile Green, “Parnassus of the Evangelical Empire: Orientalism and the English Universities, 1800–50.” Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History 40 (2012); Brian Ireland & Sharif Gemie, “Raga Rock: Popular Music and the Turn to the East in the 1960s.” Journal of American Studies 53 (2019); Ilan Kapoor, “Capitalism, Culture, Agency: Dependency versus Postcolonial Theory.” Third World Quarterly 23.4 (2002); Michael Kemper, “Russian Oirentalism,” 2018. At Oxford Research Encyclopedias (), accessed 4/21; Gina Kim, “Visualizing Colonial Beauty: Female Figure Paintings of Yi Yu-Tae, 1943-1944” (M.A. thesis, U. of Oregon, 2014); Orkun Kocabiyik, “Imperial Adventures: Accounts of Izmir as the Orientalism Other in British Travel Writing Tradition.” (Ph.D. diss., Ege Üniversitesi, 2011); Donna Landry, “Said before Said.” In Debating Orientalism (Palgrave Macmillan, 2013); Kaj Öhrnberg, "Georg August Wallin: An Orientalist between National and Imperial Orientalism." Studia Orientalia Electronica 110 (2011); Mehmet Orhan, “Research Methodology in Kurdish Studies: Interactions between Fieldwork, Epistemology and Theory.” Anthropology of the Middle East 15 (2020); Xing Wang, “Rethinking Material Religion in the East: Orientalism and Religious Material Culture in Contemporary Western Academia.” Religions 9 (2018). Imperialist Orientalism: Daniele Conversi, “Cosmopolitanism and Nationalism.” In Encyclopaedia of Nationalism (Transaction Books, 2000); Thomas R. Craig, “Challenging U.S. Undergraduates Constructions of India: Opportunities to (Re)Imagine the Other” (M.A. thesis, U. of Akron, 20189); Manan Desi, The United States of India (Temple U., 2020); Peter Gottshchalk & Mathew N. Schmalz, “Introduction.” In Engaging South Asian Religions (State U. of New York, 2011); Charles W. Hayford, “The Storm Over the Peasant: Orientalism and Rhetoric in Construing China.” In Contesting the Master Narrative: Essays in Social History (U. of Iowa, 1997); John M. Hobson, “Re-visioning Eurocentrism: A Symposium," 17 Sept. 2012. At The Disorder of Things (), accessed 4/21; Kenneth D. Jackson, “Pessoa’s English Poetry: an Overview.” Pessoa Plural: A Journal of Fernando Pessoa Studies 10 (2016); Peter A. Jackson, “The Neoliberal University and Immobilities of Theory.” In Area Studies at the Crossroads (Palgrave Macmillan, 2017); Peter A. Jackson, Spatialites of Knowledge in the Neoliberal World Academy (U. of Bonn, 2015); Athithan Jayapalan, “The Sri Lankan National Left, Imperialism and the Tamil National Question ,” n.d. At tamilnet.com (), accessed 4/21; Chisu T. Ko, "Self-Orientalism and Inter-Imperiality in Anna Kazumi Stahl’s Flores de un solo día." Latin American and Caribbean Ethnic Studies 14 (2019); Rhodri W. Liscombe, “From the Polar Seas to Australasia: Jane Austen, ‘English Culture,’ and Regency Orientalism,” 2008. At Persuasions On-line ( accessed 4/21; Seyyed M. Marandi & Hossein Pirnajmuddin, “‘Imaginative Geography’: Orientalist Discourse in Paradise Lost.” Pazhuhesh-e Zabanha-ye Khareji 56 (2010); Roohollah Roozbeh, “Hollywood Adaptation of Thousand and One Nights: A Crhtical Analysis based on Hutecheon’s (2006) Theory.” International Journal of Egnliosh Language & Translation Studies 5 (2017); Andrew Wilcox, Orientalism and Imperialism: From Nineteenth-Century Missionary Imaginings to the Contemporary Middle East (Bloomsbury, 2018). Imperialistic Orientalism: Laura Chrisman, “Empire, ‘Race’ and Feminism at the fin de siècle: the Work of George Egerton and Olive Schreiner.” In Cultural Politics at the Fin de Siècle (Cambridge, 1995); Ignacio López-Calvo, “The Study of Orientalism and South-South Dialogs between the ‘Orient’ and the Luso-Hipanic World,” 2017. At bardulia (ignaciolopezcalvo.blogspot), accessed 4/21; Chisu T. Ko, “Orientalism and De-Orientalism in Contemporary Latin America: Reading César Aira. Transmodernity 8 (2018); Vernon Ruland, Eight Sacred Horizons: The Religious Imagination East and West (Macmillan, 1985); Andrew Wilcox, Orientalism and Imperialism: From Nineteenth-Century Missionary Imaginings to the Contemporary Middle East (Bloomsbury Academic, 2018); Nathan S. Winters, “School Girls with Katanas: Appropriating Jananeseness and the Postmodern Cool in Sucker Punch” (M.A. thesis, Bowling Green State U., 2012). Orientalist Imperialism: Dominic Alessio & Jessica Langer, “Science Fiction, Hindu Nationalism and Modernity Bollywood’s Koi... Mil Gaya.” In Science Fiction, Imperialism and the Third World (McFarland & Co., 2010); Ivan Kalmar, “Jewish Orientalism.” In Judaism from the Renaissance to Modern Times (Brill, 1999); Shlomy Mualem, "Imaginative Geography: Dialectical Orientalism in Borges." Transmodernity: 6 (2016); William O'Reilly, “Fredrick Jackson Turner's Frontier Thesis, Orientalism, and the Austrian Militärgrenze.” Journal of Austrian-American History 2 (2018); Andréa E. Schnell, “Gertrude Bell: An Orientalist in Context” (M.A. thesis, McGill U., 2008); Yuki Schwartz, “The Shame Culture of Empire: The Chrysanthemum and the Sword as Handbook for Cold War Imperialism.” In Feminist Praxis against U.S. Militarism (Lexington Books, 2020); Hugh B. Urban, The Power of Tantra: Religion, Sexuality, and the Politics of South Asian Studies (I. B. Tauris, 2010).
Imperialist Orientalism. See Imperial Orientalism.
Imperialistic Orientalism. See Imperial Orientalism.
Scholars use this term and the closely related terms Implied Orientalism, Inherent Orientalism, Intrinsic Orientalism, and Tacit Orientalism to describe their sense that Orientalists (primarily Western, but Asian as well) are not aware that sets of Orientalist stereotypes and prejudices inform their attitudes and behaviors concerning Asians. The use of these terms recalls Edward W. Said’s notion of latent Orientalism (Orientalism, 1978), and scholars using them occasionally cite him in doing so. This set of terms is also closely related to the notion of unconscious Orientalism as well as the terms related to hidden Orientalism. Scholars generally use the terms here in passing—and not so much as technical terms as such—to underscore this sense that Orientalists habitually imagine and construct Orientals as having an essential, unchanging identity usually considered to be inferior to the West, and that this habit of mind is integral to Orientalism itself. Scholars often see this set of Orientalisms as being embedded in culture and expressed through ideological stereotypes and prejudices, which are communicated in a myriad of ways including through academic traditions, social media, entertainment media, news media, advertising, and political and international institutions, to name only a few. These Orientalisms permeate cultures and cultural institutions as sets of unquestioned, common sense assumptions. David Tal (2017), for example, discerns an “implied Orientalism” in Western feminists’ unconsciously self-promoting objections to Arab women wearing miniskirts. Maryam Sakeenah (2010) argues that Samuel Huntington’s “clash of civilizations thesis” is based on an “inherent Orientalism” paired with a strain of Western-centrism. Eda Acra (2015) cites Turkish “Kemalism’” and its negative attitudes towards the “backward” Ottomans as being an example of an Asian “intrinsic Orientalism”. One of the issues scholars face in the use of these terms is that they are by definition “fuzzy” notions that can be hard to pin down and depend on the eye of the beholder. They are also permeable: Michael Larson (2019) thus describes how the author Pearl Buck was, through her long experience with China, able to compensate in some ways for her inherent Orientalist attitudes. Of these terms, only “inherent Orientalism” and "intrinsic Orientalism" seem to have been used in the 19th century when both were used to mean those things that are essentially Oriental in nature. [4/21]
See also: Academic Orientalism, Creeping Orientalism, Feminist Orientalism, Haunted Orientalism, Hidden Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Indirect Orientalism, Latent Orientalism, Liberal Orientalism, Mainstream Orientalism, Naïve Orientalism, Neoliberal Orientalism, Orientalist Common Sense, Popular Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Self-Orientalism, Turkish Orientalism, Unconscious Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Implicit Orientalism: Alex, “Garden State,” 2004. At A Thaumaturgical Compendium (), accessed 3/21; Mustafa Armagan, “Montaigne and the Ottomans,” 2006. At The Fountain (), accessed 3/21; Helen H. Cho, “The Highly Charged Rhetoric in Trade Politics: Representations of China During the 2010 U.S. Midterm Elections” (M.A. thesis, Georgetown U., 2011); Raewyn Connell, “Lingusitics and Language in the Global Economy of Knowledge: A Commentary.” In Colonial and Decolonial Linguistics: Knowledge and Epistemes (Oxford, 2020); Ambereen Dadabhoy, “’Going Native’: Geography, Gender, and Identity in Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s Turkish Embassy Letters.” In Gender and Space in British Literature, 1660-1820 (Routledge, 2014); Burhanettin Duran, “How the Western Media Hurts Turkey’s Opposition,” 2018. At Daily Sabah (), accessed 3/21; Anya P. Foxen, Inhaling Spirit: Harmonialism, Orientalism, and the Western Roots of Modern Yoga (Oxford, 2020); Mélissa Gélinas, “Africa in Translation: A History of Colonial Linguistics in Germany and Beyond, 1814-1945.” Cambridge Journal of Postcolonial Inquiry 3 (2016); David Hakken, “The Value of an Evolutionary View to Globalizing Informatics Research.” In Globalization as Evolutionary Process: Modeling Global Change (Routledge, 2008); Sharron Hinchliff & Andrew King, "Ageing Sexualities Through a Critical Lens: Bringing Social Psychology, Sociology, and Intersectionality into Dialogue." In Psychologies of Ageing (Palgrave Macmillan), 2018; Denijal Jegic, “The Fear of Palestinian Existence,” 2018. At The Palestinian Chronicle (), accessed 3/21; Paul Manning, Strangers in a Strange Land (Academic Studies Press, 2012); Dimitrios Theodossopoulos, “Infuriated with the Infuriated? Blaming Tactics and Discontent about the Greek Financial Crisis.” Current Anthropology 54 ( 2013); Gertjan van Stam, "Africa’s Non-inclusion in Defining Fifth Generation Mobile Networks." In International Conference on e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: 8th International Conference… (Springer, 2016); Andrea M. Whittaker, “Reproduction Opportunists in the New Global Sex Trade: PGD and Non-medical Sex Selection.” Reproductive BioMedicine Online 23 (2011). Implied Orientalism: Allen Fisher, “Simulation and the ‘Grand Theme’ in R. B. Kitaj’s An Early Europe.” At Allen Fisher (), accessed 3/21); Saskia Glas, et. al., “Between Socialization and Agency: Understanding the Link between Religion and Opposing Gender Equality in the Middle East and North Africa between 2001 and 2014,” n.d. At ecpr (), accessed 3/21; Gloria M. Hernández, “Presence, Absence and Divine Vision: A Comparative Study of the Cántico espiritual and Rāsa Līlā” (Ph.D. diss., Emory U., 2011); Victoria M. Muñoz, Spanish Romance in the Battle for Global Supremacy (Anthem Press, 2021); Noam Reisner, review article, “Douglas A. Brooks (ed.), Milton and the Jews.” The Review of English Studies NS 60 (2009); David Tal, “Jacqueline Kahanoff and the Demise of the Levantine.” Mediterranean Historical Review 32 (2017); Roger Vignoles, Review. “Mahler, Gustav Songs; Stephan Genzz, Roger Vignoles,” 2004. At cd and lp ( accessed 3/21; Inherent Orientalism: 19th Century: “Books of the Month,” [Review of Montesquieu’ Persian Letters] Lippincott’s Monthly Magazine 64 (1899); Frances Hadley, “Leo Tolstoi: A Character Sketch.” Our Day: The Altruistic Review 15 (1895); L. S. Lavenu, Erlesmere: or, Contrasts of Character, new ed. (Smith, Elder, & Co, 1862). Contemporary Usage: Tahir Abbas, Islamic Radicalism and Multicultural Politics: The British Experience (Routledge, 2011; Houria Achir, “The Perception of the Orient in T. E. Lawrence’s Seven Pillars of Wisdom” (M.A. essay, AbouBekr Belkaid University of Tlemcen, 2016-17); Syed F. Alatas, “Religion, Values, and Capitalism in Asia.” In Local Cultures and the “New Asia”: The State, Culture, and Capitalism in Southeast Asia (Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, 2002); Gabriel Babuch, “Western Food Perceptions in the Land of the Rising Sun” (Honors thesis, UCLA, 2020); Sagnik Bhattacharya, “Monsters in the Dark: the Discovery of Thuggee and Demographic Knowledge in Colonial India.” Palgrave Communications 6 (2020); Antje Budde, “How to Slam the Door, or Not to, or Almost, or Maybe...: Configurations of a Speculative Moment in the Global Doll House of Patriarchal Order.” Canadian Review of Comparative Literature (June 2011); Margaret Daly, “Opera, Ethnicity, and Class: Understanding the Social Dynamics of Taste through Puccini’s Madama Butterfly" (B.A. essay, Wesleyan U., 2015); Sissy Helft, “Imagining Flight in Abdulrazak Gurnah’s By Sea.” Zeitschrift für Anglistik und Amerikanistik 56 (2008); Xavier J. Hernandez, "Filipino American College Students at the Margins of Neoliberalism." Policy Futures in Education 14 (2016); Michael Larson, “Pearl S. Buck, Pavilion of Women, and Early Twentieth-Century Chinese Feminism.” Journal of Jissen English Department 71 (2019); Nayankika Mookherjee, “Introduction: Self in South Asia.” Journal of Historical Sociology 26 (2013); Amnon Raz-Krakotzkin, “Exile, History, and the Nationalization of Jewish Memory: Some Reflections on the Zionist Notion of History and Return.” Journal of Levantine Studies 3 (2013); Juliet Rogers, Law’s Cut on the Body of Human Rights: Female Circumcision, Torture and Sacred Flesh (Routledge, 2014); Maryam Sakeenah, Us Versus Them and Beyond: An Oriental-Islamic Rejoinder to the Clash of Civilizations Theory (The Other Press, 2010); Teodora Todorova, "Reframing Bi‐nationalism in Palestine‐Israel as a Process of Settler Decolonisation." Antipode 47 (2015); Twist_admin, “Aladdin, the Reflection of Orientalism,” 2017. At Twist Islamophobia ( accessed 4/21. Intrinsic Orientalism: Eda Acra, “Conflict Geographies of Water Pollution in Thrace Region of Turkey” (Ph.D. diss., Queens U., 2015); Karin Althans, Darkness Subverted: Aboriginal Gothic in Black Australian Literature and Film (V&R unipress, 2010); “British Criticism of the Old Testament.” The Edinburgh Review 176 (1892); Quan Manh Ha & William Frost, “Postcolonial Satire, Imperialist Nostalgia, and Reconciliation in Huy Duong Phan’s “The Billion Dollar Skeleton” and Andrew Lam’s “Slingshot.” Journal of the Short Story in English 71 (2018); Paul Miller, “Continuity and Change in Etruscan Domestic Architecture A Study of Building Techniques and Materials from 800-500 BC.” (Ph.D. diss., U. of Edinburgh, 2015); Harika E. Oskay, “Artist as an Ethnic Curiosity: The Extended Line of Orientalism,” n.d. At Foundation Max Van Berchem Genéve ( accessed 3/21. Tacit Orientalism: Isa Blumi, Foundations of Modernity: Human Agency and the Imperial State (Routledge, 2012); Young Eun Chae, "Screening the Past: Historiography of Contemporary South Korean Cinema, 1998-2008" (Ph.D. diss., U. of North Carolina, 2011); Eric R. J. Hayot, Chinese Dreams: Pound, Brecht, Tel Quel (U. of Michigan, 2003); Julie Mahdavi & Anqi Telleen, “Les Objects Etrangers: Tumbir Exhibition Highlight,” 2017. At European Fashion Heritage Association (), accessed 4/21; Ming Xie, Ezra Pound and the Appropriation of Chinese Poetry: Cathay, Translation, and Imagism (Routledge, 1999).
Implied Orientalism. See Implicit Orientalism.
Inadvertent Orientalism. See Accidental Orientalism.
Incipient Orientalism. See Early Orientalism.
Scholars use this term usually to describe a form of reverse Orientalism or self-Orientalism employed especially by non-European educated elites including scholars, which draws on Western ideological Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices to imagine their own non-European Self in relationship to a Western Other, e.g. a European colonial power. There are two large classes of indigenous Orientalisms. First, indigenous Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices may be used to treat one's own non-Western culture, especially traditional culture, as an inferior Other. Legal scholars in post-1948 China, for example, often look on traditional Chinese law as being essentially inferior to modern, Western-style law. In this usage, indigenous Orientalism is a form of internal Orientalism that is usually directed at one's own people as a form of self-Orientalism. Poddar and Subba have coined the otherwise fairly rarely used term, home-grown Orientalism, to describe this same first form of indigenous Orientalism. Second, some scholars use this term to describe the ways in which "indigenous," non-Western Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices are employed to define an exterior, alien Other that is deemed to be essentially inferior—such as views sometimes held in Turkey regarding Arabs. Additionally, this term is also sometimes used to differentiate American Orientalism from European Orientalism; Americans, that is, have their own "indigenous" Orientalisms. This term and the term Native Orientalism (Contemporary Usage) both describe virtually the same phenomenon and are used largely in the same ways. [6/16]
See also: Reverse Orientalism, Self-Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Internal Orientalism, Legal Orientalism, Neo-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Philip C. Huang, Chinese Civil Justice, Past and Present ( Rowman & Littlefield, 2010); Marcia C. Inhorn, The New Arab Man: Emergent Masculinities, Technologies, and Islam in the Middle East (Princeton, 2012); Seyed M. Marandi, “EurocentricismandAcademic Imperialism,” 2014. At ZarCom Media (), accessed 6/16; S. Habib Mousavi & Fateme Ghafoori, “Masked Orientalism Exhibited in Local Movies: An Orientalist Reading of Livre de la Loi.” International Journal of Social Science and Humanity 2 (2012); Prem K. Poddar & T. B. Subba, “Unpacking Home-grown Orientalism and Area Studies in India.” Journal of the Indian Anthropological Society 27 (1992); Öykö Potuoǧlu-Cook,”Night Shifts: Moral, Economic, and Cultural Politics of Turkish Belly Dance Across the Fins-de-Siécle” (Ph.D. diss., Northwestern, 2008); Fionnghuala Sweeny, Frederick Douglass and the Atlantic World (U. of Liverpool, 2007); Mercedes Volait, “Appropriating Orientalism? Saber Sabri’s Mamluk Revivals in Late-Nineteenth-Century Cairo.” In Islamic Art in the 19th Century: Tradition, Innovation, and Eclecticism (Brill, 2006); Francis Zimmerman, “A Hindu to His Body: The Reinscription of Traditional Representations.” In Images of the Body in India: South Asian and European Perspectives on Ritual and Performativity (Routledge, 2011).
This term is not frequently used. When scholars do use it, they most often use it to describe forms of what is more often termed hidden Orientalism by which Orientalist images and constructions of the Other are expressed ("indirectly") in less open, less obvious, and more round about ways. A few other scholars have used the first meaning of the term second-hand Orientalism (i.e. cases in which somewhat innocuous Orientalist influences seep into the ways in which Orientalists imagine and construct “the Orient”) in the same way. Scholars have also used this term in other ways as well. Jülide Karakoç has used it to describe the ways in which American Orientalist foreign policy in the Middle East relies ("indirectly") upon local actors such as Turkey or Israel for its conduct. And C. Stuart Johnson has used it in passing to describe the ways in which Vienna Orientalists historically drew on the Orientalism of Venice ("indirectly") to imagine and construct "the Orient." [6/17]
See also: Hidden Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Implicit Orientalism, Second-hand Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: “Comparing the two seminal 9/11 films: Oliver Stone's World Trade Center and Paul Greengrass' United 93,” 2009. At Entertaining Americanism (), accessed 6/17; William Henry Foster, Gender, Mastery and Slavery: From European to Atlantic World Frontier (Palgrave Macmillan, 2010); Jülide Karakoç, “Challenges to US Middle East Policy in the Post-Arab Uprisings Period.” In New Actors and Issues in the Post-Arab Uprisings Period (Cambridge Scholars, 2016); Brian J. O’Neill, “Displaced Identities Among the Malacca Portuguese.” In Recasting Culture and Space in Iberian Contexts (State U. of New York, 2008); Douglas Reynolds, Turkey, Greece, and the “Borders” of Europe: Images of Nations in the West German Press, 1950-1975 (Frank & Timme GmbH, 2013).
Indo-Orientalism. See Indological Orientalism.
Indo-chic Orientalism. See Popular Orientalism.
This term refers to Indology, which, historically, was the study of Indian languages, literature, history, and culture that was considered to be an important branch of the field of study of academic Orientalism. Scholars generally use this term to describe the ways in which Indology, especially in the 19th century, was a vessel for and even an expression of Saidian Orientalism and was used as such to imagine and construct an India that was taken to be essentially different from the West. Many European Indologists, although not all by any means, constructed India as an essentially and irredeemably inferior, backward, and uncivilized nation especially in contrast to the West. However, others in the West and among Indian thinkers drew on Indology to imagine India as being essentially more spiritual than and thus superior to the materialistic West. And within India, Orientalist Indology has been used as a cultural and political tool to promote certain forms of nationalism; a small number of scholars, notably Jukka Jouhki, term this "indigenous" Indian version of Orientalism, Indo-Orientalism.
See also: Academic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Reverse Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Sinological Orientalism, Traditional Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Robert E. Frykenberg, “Hindutva as a Political Religion: An Historical Perspective.” In The Sacred in Twentieth-Century Politics: Essays in Honour of Professor Stanley G. Payne (Palgrave Macmillan, 2008); David N. Geraghty, “Old Stories, New Authors: Orientalism, Compolitanism and India” (Ph.D. disss., Monash, 2014); Norman J. Girardot, The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge’s Oriental Pilgrimage (U. of California, 2002); Jukka Jouhki, “Imagining the Other: Orientalism and Occidentalism in Tamil-European Relations in South Indi.” (diss., U. of Jyväskylä, 2006); Jukka Jouhki, "Orientalism and India." J@rgonia 4 (2006); Richard King, Orientalism and Religion: Postcolonial Theory, India and "the Mystic East" (Routledge, 1999); Santosh C. Saha, “Hindu Revivalist Cultural Policies and Programs in India: A Critique.” In Religious Fundamentalism in the Contemporary World: Critical Social and Political Issues (Lexington Books, 2004).
This term and its synonym childish Orientalism are used more often in the blogosphere than they are by scholars. Both are very rare even there but do show something of the ways in which the notion of ideological Orientalism has been used beyond the pale of scholarship. These terms are generally used to point to what their users take to be immature, blatant, heedless, and unthinking Western prejudices against Arab/Muslim peoples and point to the socialization of ideological Orientalism in Western cultures. [8/16]
See also: Blatant Orientalism, Hard Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Infantile Orientalism: Hani Shukrallah, “Western Media and the Brotherhood: Secrets Behind the Love Affair,” 2012. At Ahramonline (), accessed 8/16. Childish Orientalism: Mehron Abdollmohammadi, “Infant Phenomenology,” 2013. At OP: Original Plumbing (), accessed 8/16.
Inherent Orientalism. See Implicit Orientalism.
Inner City (Inner-City) Orientalism
Use of this term is identified with the work of Stephen Graham (2009, 2011, 2012), who draws on Michel Foucault’s notion of “boomerang effects,” which argues that Western colonial powers used on their own citizens techniques of repression developed in their colonies. Graham thus argues that since World War II European colonial powers have often drawn on overseas colonial Orientalist stereotypes to imagine and construct certain domestic urban enclaves, especially those populated by immigrants, as being similar to their overseas colonies. Those enclaves, that is, are stereotyped as being poor, backward, racially and culturally alien, and frequently imagined to be prone to terrorism and thus dangerous to national security. Scholars particularly identify inner city Orientalisms with right wing and white supremacist movements as well as neoliberal attitudes towards the poor. Scholarly use of this term has mostly focused on European cities, especially in France. Inner city Orientalism may be considered to be a form of urban Orientalism, but it is distinctive in that it focuses specifically on Western cities in the post-World War II era and is framed by scholars as being a reflexive offshoot of Western colonialism. This term is used only infrequently and those who use it almost always cite Graham. [12/20]
See also: Ideological Orientalism, Neoliberal Orientalism, Racist Orientalism, Urban Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Charlotte Chadderton, "The Militarisation of English Schools: Troops to Teaching and the Implications for Initial Teacher Education and Race Equality." Race Ethnicity and Education 17 (2014); Stephen Graham, “Cities as Battlespace The New Military Urbanism.” City 13 (2009); Stephen Graham, Cities Under Siege: The New Military Urbanism (Verso Books, 2011); Stephen Graham, “Foucault’s Boomerang—The New Military Urbanism.” development dialogue 58 (2012); Nicole Nguyen, "Chokepoint: Regulating US Student Mobility Through Biometrics." Political Geography 46 (2015); Diana Norton, “Immigration and Spanish Subjectivity in No habrá paz para los malvados.” In Toward a Multicultural Configuration of Spain: Local Cities, Global Spaces (Fairleigh Dickinson U., 2015).
Scholars use this term usually in two ways both found in Edward W. Said’s foundational book, Orientalism (1978), although Said does not use this term as such. First, they use it more broadly to describe the place and role of ideological Orientalism as a sociocultural agency (institution) that imagines, creates, legitimizes, represents, stereotypes, rationalizes, and creates perceptions of an (Oriental) Other as having an essential, fundamentally unchanging nature that more often than not is held to be inferior to the (Western) Self. Or, again, it is the set of cultural, intellectual, social, political, and economic doctrines, beliefs, images, and literature that embody Orientalist ideologies. In all of these ways, Orientalism is an organized (institutionalized) Western way of thinking about those who are always different from and usually inferior to the West a la Said. This suggests that Orientalism itself is an institution that has a certain cultural “solidity” that is a significant, deep rooted, and persistent presence that influences every aspect of Western life. It is instituted in Western culture and society. Second, scholars more narrowly use this term and the term Orientalist institutions to refer specifically to the various college and university faculties, museums and libraries, scholarly societies, learned literature, conferences and congresses, and other agencies that made up academic Orientalism from the late 18th century into the 20th century—and, some would argue, down to the present. Said in Orientalism consistently points to the significant role that Orientalist institutions played historically in embodying and giving powerful voice to ideological Orientalism. Those institutions provided the context within which individual Orientalist scholars labored, developed their ideas, and produced their learned works. They developed the vocabulary of Oriental studies and gained such prestige and authority over individual scholars that the institutions of Orientalism actually came to determine the nature of “the Orient “itself, whatever the realities of Asia. It should be noted that while the term “Orientalist institutions” is usually used specifically to describe these scholarly institutions, occasionally it is used in the broader sense, above—or seems to be, depending on how one reads its use in context. [revised 6/19]
See also: Academic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Intellectual Orientalism, International Congress of Orientalists, Islamic Orientalism, Orientalist Literature, Structural Orientalism, Traditional Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Institutional Orientalism: Ammiel Alcalay, After Jews and Arabs: Remaking Levantine Culture (U. of Minnesota, 1993); Sadik Jalal al-‘Azm, “Orientalism in Reverse.” In Orientalism: A Reader (New York U., 2000); Luiz E. V. de Souza, et al., “'Postcolonial Theories Meet Energy Studies:' Institutional Orientalism” as a Barrier for Renewable Electricity Trade in the Mediterranean Region.” Energy Research & Social Science 40 (2018); Ahmed T. Hussein, “The Representation of the Arab World by Twentieth Century English Writers: Lawrence Durrell, Edna O’Brien & Jonathan Raban” (Ph.D. diss., Glasgow, 1989); Fatima Khan, “Negotiating British-Muslim Identity: Hybridity, Exclusion and Resistance” (Ph.D. diss., Liverpool, 2015); Zachary Lockman, Contending Visions of the Middle East: The History and Politics of Orientalism (Cambridge, 2004); Joshua A. Sabih, "Under the Gaze of Double Critique: De-colonisation, De-sacralisation and the Orphan Book." Tidsskrift for Islamforskning 9 (2015); Edward W. Said, Orientalism (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978). Orientalist Institutions: Ali Behdad, Camera Orientalis: Reflections on Photography of the Middle East (U. of Chicago, 2016); Abdelmajid Hannoum “'Faut-Il Brûler L'Orientalisme?': On French Scholarship of North Africa.” Cultural Dynamics 16 (2004); Birayt Kolluoglu-Kiri, “From Orientalism to Area Studies” CR: The New Centennial Review 3 (2003); Kim Ming Lee & Kam Yee Law, "Hong Kong Chinese ‘Orientalism’: Discourse Reflections on Studying Ethnic Minorities in Hong Kong." In Ethnic Minorities: Perceptions, Cultural Barriers and Health Inequalities (Nova, 2016); Lhoussain Simour, “The White Lady Travels: Narrating Fez and Spacing Colonial Authority in Edith Wharton’s In Morocco.” Journal of Women of the Middle East and the Islamic World 7 (2009).
Scholarly use of this term is neither frequent nor rare, and scholars generally use it in one of two ways: first, they use this term and the terms cognitive Orientalism and (rarely) contemplative Orientalism to describe the set of ideas that Western Orientalists, particularly scholars and intellectuals, have long used to imagine and construct the essential, unchanging, and more often than not inferior nature of an (Oriental) Other. Edward W. Said (1978) set the tone for this first usage although he does not himself use the term as such. He does, however, compare Orientalism to a library or an archive of information bound together by a family of ideas as well as a set of values (pp. 40-41), and he argues that Orientalist scholars and intellectuals, as well as others, have used this durable body of ideas to explain how Orientals behave as well as who they are essentially. Scholars since Said have continued to use this term in much the same way, seeing “intellectual Orientalism” as giving structure, form, context, and authority to the Orientalists’ collection of ideas—their thinking—concerning Orientals. It must be said that scholars using this term usually use it in light of Said’s description of Orientalism as a set of largely negative stereotypes of Asians useful to exercising power over them. Second, scholars also use this term more narrowly, usually in passing, as a synonym for academic Orientalism, that is the Orientalist family of ideas that the scholarly apparatus of academics, universities, scholarly literature, and other agencies of academic institutions that emerged in the 18th century and reached its zenith in the 19th century when Asian studies was called “Orientalism,” the study of Orientals. It should be noted that these two uses of this term shade into each other under the assumption that the province of academics is the intellect. [1/20]
See also: Academic Orientalism, Emergent Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Institutional Orientalism (2nd meaning), Orientalist Archive, Orientalist Epistemology, Philosophical Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: FIRST USAGE: Mark Lipovetsky, “Extreme Science: Towards Global Slavic Humanities,” 2015. At Humanities Futures ( futures.org), accessed 12/19; Ilyse R. Morgenstein Fuerst, “Religions of Empire: Islamic Texts. Imperial Taxonomies, and South Asian Definitions of Religion” (Ph.D. diss., U. of North Carolina, 2012); Joanna Neilly, “Who is the Subaltern? A Consideration of the ‘Oriental Woman’ in the Work of E. T. A. Hoffmann.” In Bonds and Borders: Identity, Imagination and Transformation in Literature (Cambridge Scholars, 2011); Edward W. Said, Orientalism (Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1978); Caroline M. Wolf, “Migrant Monuments, Monumental Migrants: São Paulo’s Sculptural Homage to Syrian-Lebanese Friendship and the Crafting of Transnational Identity in Centennial Brazil.” TAREA 4 (2017); Mari Yoshihara, Embracing the East: White Women and American Orientalism (Oxford, 2003). Cognitive Orientalism: Nilendra Bardiar, “Politics and Debate on Hindu Code Bill and Uniform Civil Code and the Forces of ‘Hindu Right Reaction’.” International Journal of Historical Insight and Research 1 (2015); “'Samson and Delilah’ Resists Death,” n.d. At Spain’s News (), accessed 12/19; Albert Tzeng, “Framing Sociology in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Singapore: Geopolitics, States and Practitioners” (Ph.D. diss., U. of Warwick, 2012). Contemplative Orientalism: Judith Surkis, Sex, Law, and Sovereignty in French Algeria, 1830–1930 (Cornell U., 2019); Rebecca A. Wilcox, “Cultures of Conquest: Romancing the East in Medieval England and France.” (Ph.D. diss, U. of Texas at Austin, 2009). SECOND USAGE: Geoffrey C. Gunn, First Globalization: The Eurasian Exchange, 1500 to 1800 (Rowman & Littlefield, 2003); Shah M. Hanifi, “A Genealogy of Orientalism in Afghanistan: The Colonial Image Lineage.” In Middle East Studies after September 11: Neo-Orientalism, American Hegemony, and Academia (Brill, 2018).
Inter-Arab Orientalism. See Arab Orientalism.
Inter-Asian Orientalism. See Oriental Orientalism.
Scholars use this term usually to describe the use of ideological Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices directed at peoples who live in the same nation, territory, or society as the Orientalists, treating these Others as essentially alien or exotic and ideologically distant even though they are geographically close. These internal Others may be a region, a racial or ethnic minority, another sect within the same religious tradition, or a social class. Scholars also use other terms to describe internal Orientalism, including: deep Orientalism (Pollock), domestic Orientalism (Piterberg), nesting (nested) Orientalism (Bakic ́-Hayden), and more frequently and by many scholars, the first meaning of local Orientalism (e.g. Erdoğan).
See also: Banal Orientalism, Categorical Orientalism, Chinese Orientalism, Deep Orientalism, Euro-Orientalism, External Orientalism, Indigenous Orientalism, Internalized Orientalism, Jewish Orientalism, Native Orientalism, Neo-Orientalism, Nesting Orientalism, Oriental Orientalism, Orientology, Ottoman Orientalism,, Regional OrientalismRepublican Orientalism, Scandinavian Orientalism, Social Orientalism, Sub-Orientalism, Turksih Orientalism, Zionist Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Milica Bakić-Hayden, "Nesting Orientalisms: The Case of Former Yugoslavia." Slavic Review 54 (1995); Wilhelm Halbfass, Beyond Orientalism: The Work of Wilhelm Halbfass and Its Impact on Indian and Cross-Cultural Studies (Editions Rodopi, 1997); David R. Jansson, "‘A Geography of Racism’: Internal Orientalism and the Construction of American National Identity in the Film Mississippi Burning." National Identities 7 (2005); David R. Jansson, "Internal Orientalism in America: W.J. Cash’s The Mind of the South and the Spatial Construction of American National Identity." Political Geography 22 (2003); Malreddy P. Kumar, "Introduction: Orientalism(s) after 9/11." Journal of Postcolonial Writing 48 (2012); David Mazel, "American Literary Environmentalist as Domestic Orientalism." In The Ecocriticism Reader: Landmarks in Literary Ecology (Georgia, 1996); Gabriel Piterberg, “Domestic Orientalism: The Representation of ‘Oriental’ Jews in Zionist/Israeli Historiography.” British Journal of Middle Eastern Studies 23 (1996); Sheldon Pollock, “Deep Orientalism?” In Orientalism and the Postcolonial Predicament (U. of Pennsylvania, 1993); Louisa Schein, "Barbarians Beautified: The Ambivalences of Chinese Nationalism" (Annual Meetings of the American Anthropological Association, 1990); Bill Yousman, “Blackophilia and Blackophobia: White Youth, the Consumption of Rap Music, and White Supremacy.” Communication Theory 13 (2003).
Coined by Geraldine Heng and Jandas Devan, this term is frequently used by scholars to describe situations in which Orientalized Others accept the ways that ideological Orientalists portray them as being the true, essential description of themselves—i.e. they internalize Orientalist stereotypes within themselves. There is some difference among scholars as to how powerful this internalization of "the Orientalist gaze" actually is, some arguing that it is not as potent as it is often represented to be. As used by some scholars, the meaning of internalized Orientalism shades into or overlaps with internal Orientalism in situations where a governing elite uses it to determine the normative essence of what it means to be an acceptable member of its society. The social and political elite, that is, uses an internalized Orientalism to exercise internal political and social control by defining the social, cultural, and political identity of their society, especially in societies undergoing modernization. [6/16]
See also: Epistemological Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Internal Orientalism, Self-Orientalism, Sinological Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Fahrettin Altun, “Orientalization Practices in Mainstream Turkish Foreign News Coverage.” Perceptions: Journal of International Affairs 16 (2011); Erdağ Göknar, Orhan Pamuk, Secularism and Blasphemy: The Politics of the Turkish Novel (Routledge, 2013); Geraldine Heng, & Jandas Devan, “State Fatherhood: The Politics of Nationalism, Sexuality, and Race in Singapore.” In The Gender/Sexuality Reader: Culture, History, Political Economy (Routledge, 1997); Jung In Kang, Western-Centrism and Contemporary Korean Political Thought (Lexington Books, 2015); Michiel Leezenberg, “Soviet Kurdology and Kurdism Orientalism.” In The Heritage of Soviet Oriental Studies (Routledge, 2011); Necla Mora, “Orientalist Discourse in Media Texts.” International Journal of Human Sciences 6 (2009); Ahlam Muhtaseb, “U.S. Media Darlings: Arab and Muslim Women Activists, Exceptionalism, and the ‘Rescue Narrative’,” . At Academia.edu (), accessed 6/16; Chunyan Shu, “Pride and Loathing in History: the National Character Discourse and the Chinese Search for a Cultural Identity” (Diss., Leiden, 2004); Emmanuel Szurek, “’Go West’: Variations on Kemalist Orientalism.” In After Orientalism: Critical Perspectives on Western Agency and Eastern Re-appropriations (Brill, 2015); Daniel F. Vukovich, China and Orientalism: Western Knowledge Production and the P. R. C. (Routledge, 2012).
International Congress of Orientalists
Scholars describe the series of International Congresses of Orientalists that began in Paris in 1873 as playing a significant role in the development of academic Orientalism as a field of study (see the list of congresses, below). The goals of the congresses were to promote the spread of knowledge about the Orient by creating opportunities for scholarly interaction, promoting the sharing of research findings, stimulating discussions, building an international community of scholars, and advertising the findings and value of Orientalist studies more broadly. Earlier congresses focused primarily on philology and archaeology, but in later years both the scope of subjects included and peoples and cultures studied greatly expanded. The congresses also included exhibits and panoramas that sought to allow participants and visitors to experience "the Orient" directly, almost as tourists. They thus became quite elaborate, commercialized affairs that were closely allied with the European political establishment and received the patronage of European royalty. The political and the public/commercial nature of the congresses sparked controversy in the 1890s as Orientalist scholars sought to reduce non-academic influences and activities. This controversy led to separate congresses being held in 1892 and again in 1894. There was later a long break caused by World War I, and by the 1930s the congresses were beginning to wan in their significance, a development that accelerated after World War II. At the centennial congress held in Paris in 1973, participants debated the dissolution of the congress movement but finally decided to continue under a new name: the International Congress of Human Sciences in Asia and North Africa, which in 1986 was changed to the International Congress for Asian and North African Studies. Scholars note that until after World War II the congresses were markedly Eurocentric and played a part in imagining and constructing Orientals as exotic, inferior colonial peoples. They were, that is, an important element in the history of Western ideological Orientalism as well as being closely identified with the expansion and maintenance of European colonialism.
International Congresses of Orientalists: Paris, 1873 (1st); London, 1874 (2nd); St. Petersburg, 1876 (3rd); Florence, 1878 (4th); Berlin, 1881 (5th); Leiden, 1883 (6th); Vienna, 1886 (7th); Stockholm & Christiania, 1889 (8th); London [Statutory], 1891 and London, 1892 (9th); Madrid [Statutory], 1892 and Geneva, 1894 (10th); Paris, 1897 (11th); Rome, 1899 (12th); Hamburg, 1902 (13th); Algiers, 1905 (14th); Copenhagen, 1908 (15th); Athens, 1912 (16th); Oxford, 1928 (17th); Leiden, 1931 (18th); Rome, 1935 (19th); Brussels, 1938 (20th); Paris, 1948 (21st); Istanbul, 1951 (22nd); Cambridge, 1954 (23rd); Munich, 1957 (24th); Moscow, 1960 (25th); New Delhi, 1964 (26th); Ann Arbor, 1967 (27th); Canberra, 1971 (28th); Paris, 1973 (29th).
See also: Academic Orientalism, International Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Institutional Orientalism, Professional Orientalism, Scientific Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Eckardt Fuchs, “The Politics of the Republic of Learning: International Scientific Congresses in Europe, the Pacific Rim, and Latin America.” In Across Cultural Borders: Historiography in Global Perspective (Rowman & Littlefields, 2002); Richard E. Lee, Jr. & Immanuel Wallerstein, Overcoming the Two Cultures: Science Vs. the Humanities in the Modern World-System (Routledge, 2004); Bernard Lewis, "The Question of Orientalism." New York Review of Books 29 (1982); Paul Servais, “Scholarly Networks and International Congresses: The Orientalists before the First World War.” In Information Beyond Borders: International Cultural and Intellectual Exchange in the Belle Époque (Routledge, 2014); Vera Tolz, “European, National, and (Anti-)Imperial: The Formation of Academic Oriental Studies in Late Tsarist and Early Soviet Russia.” Kritika 9 (2008).
Scholars use this term usually in one of at least three distinct but interrelated ways all of which point to the global nature of Orientalism in all of its manifestations, as distinguished from the Orientalisms of individual cultures or nations. First, some scholars use this term to refer to the multi-national academic movement dedicated to the study of Orientalism, which emerged in the 19th century, including particularly the series of international Orientalist congresses, which began in Paris in 1873. Second, other scholars use this term to describe the multi-national nature of Orientalist aesthetic styles in various branches of the arts, such as painting and architecture, which again emerged in the 19th century. With respect to these first two usages, some scholars note that Edward W. Said's book, Orientalism (1978), initiated an "international Orientalism debate" regarding the actual nature and content of academic Orientalism and aesthetic Orientalism. Third, other scholars use this term still more broadly and usually in passing to describe the global scope and influence of ideological Orientalism.
See also: Cosmopolitan Orientalism, Academic Orientalism, Aesthetic Orientalism, Global Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, International Congress of Orientalists, Saidian Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Debashish Banerji, The Alternative Nation of Abanindrath Tagore (SAGE, 2009); Norman J. Girardot, The Victorian Translation of China: James Legge's Oriental Pilgrimage (U. of California, 2002); Catherina Hinz & Isolde Kurz, “From Orientalism to Post-Orientalism: Middle Eastern and South Asian Perspectives.” Thamyris 3 (1996); Rosie Thomas, “Thieves of the Orient: The Arabian Nights in Early Indian Cinema.” In Scheherazade's Children: Global Encounters with the Arabian Nights (New York U., 2013).
Intrinsic Orientalism. See Implicit Orientalism.
Scholars use this term usually in one of two ways. First, the large majority of scholars use it to describe Orientalist discourses, institutions, and practices in which those who are the objects of Orientalist prejudices transform those prejudices into positive characteristics or values. This first usage is similar to particular usages of reverse Orientalism. Second, a few scholars use this term to describe discourses that unconsciously mimic Western Orientalist thinking while consciously rejecting things Western in favor of a positively valued, essential, and imagined East. Both of these usages transform the negative valuation of the Orient into a positive valuation of it. Other scholars use the term Inverted Orientalism instead of inverse Orientalism. The meaning of both terms is the same. [4/16]
See also: Positive Orientalism, Reverse Orientalism, Secondary Orientalism, Self-Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Inverse Orientalism: Jørn Borup, "Zen and the Art of Inverting Orientalism: Religious Studies and Genealogical Networks." In New Approaches to the Study of Religion, vol. 1, Regional, Critical, and Historical Approaches (Verlag de Gruyter, 2004); Micahel Dusche, “German Romantics Imagining India: Friedrich Schlegel in Paris and Roots of Ethnic Nationalism in Europe,” . At CORE (www. core.ac.uk), accessed 4/16; Rupert Hodder, “The Study of the Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia: Some Comments on its Political Meanings with Particular Reference to the Philippines.” Philippine Studies 53 (2005); Brian Moeran, Language and Popular Culture in Japan (Manchester, 1989); Natalie E. Quli, "Western Self, Asian Other: Modernity, Authenticity, and Nostalgia for 'Tradition' in Buddhist Studies." Journal of Buddhist Ethics 16 (2009). Inverted Orientalism: Amita Baviskar, “The Politics of Being ’Indigenous’.” In Indigeneity in India (Kegan Paul, 2006); Anri Morimoto, “Contextualized and Cumulative: Tradition, Orthodoxy and Identity from the Perspective of Asian Theology.” In Asian and Oceanic Christianities in Conversation: Exploring Theological Identities at Home and in Diaspora (Rodopi, 2011); Benjamin E. Zeller, “Inverted Orientalism, Vedic Science, and the Modern World: Bhaktivedanta and the International Society for Krishna Consciousness.” In Handbook of Religion and the Authority of Science (Brill, 2011).
Inverted Orientalism. See Inverse Orientalism.
Invisible Orientalism. See Hidden Orientalism.
Scholars use this term and the closely related term, Celtic Orientalism, to describe the ways in which Irish writers, composers, artists, academics, and others have drawn on and imagined the Orient as a resource for Irish culture and self-understanding especially since the 19th century. These uses of the Orient reflect Catholic Ireland's unique historical situation as a European colony of a European colonial power, Britain. On the one hand, Irish Orientalists participated in the British colonial enterprise and shared in the usual ways in which British ideological Orientalists imagined and constructed an essentially, timelessly, irredeemably exotic, and inferior Orient. On the other hand, other Irish figures, such as James Cousins (1873-1956), James Joyce (1882-1941) and W. B. Yeats (1865-1939) reflected a centuries old Irish tradition of drawing on the Orient in positive ways to imagine and understand Ireland's own condition and identity as a subject nation under the rule of Britain. Among other things, Irish Orientalists have imagined Celtic Ireland as having its cultural and national origins in the East, for example as having a Phoenician heritage. Orientalism in this sense has been closely tied to Irish nationalism and the search for a unique, essential Irish national identity; Irish Orientalists, that is, see something of themselves in the Oriental colonial experience. Some scholars have noted that Irish Orientalists felt a particular affinity with India, which was also a British colony and one where many Irish served. Even in these cases, however, Irish Orientalists still have imagined and constructed an essential, timeless, unchanging Orient while identifying their national experience and identity to one degree or another with that Orient. Scholars, in sum, see Irish Orientalism as being a complex phenomenon marked historically by antipathy to the East (as being inferior), ambivalence toward it (as being like Us but still inferior), and enthusiasm for it as being an element in the essence of what it means to be Irish—yet still often tending to feel themselves ultimately superior to the Orient.
See also: Celtic Orientalism, Celticism, Ideological Orientalism, Positive Orientalism, Reverse Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Lynne A. Bongiovanni,"’Turbaned Faces Going By’: James Joyce and Irish Orientalism.” ARIEL 38 (2007); Vincent J. Cheng, "Catching the Conscience of a Race: Joyce and Celticism." In Joyce in the Hibernian Metropolis: Essays (Ohio State, 1996); Laurence Cox, “Rethinking Early Western Buddhists: Beachcombers, ‘Going Native’ and Dissident Orientalism.” Contemporary Buddhism 14 (2013); Aileen Dillane & Matthew Noone, “Irish Music Orientalism.” New Hibernia Review 20 (2016); Eishiro Ito, “Awareness of Asianess of Irishness: Joyce among Irish Orientalists.” Journal of Policy Studies 15 (2014); Joseph Lennon, “The Celt and the Oriental: The Narratives of Irish Orientalism” (Ph.D. diss., Connecticut, 2000); Joseph Lennon, Irish Orientalism: A Literary and Intellectual History (Syracuse, 2004); Sean Ryder, “Ireland, India and Popular Nationalism in the Early Nineteenth Century.” In Ireland and India: Colonies, Culture and Empire (Irish Academic Press, 2006); Umme Salma, “Orientalism in James Joyce’s ‘Araby’.” Research on Humanities and Social Sciences 2 (2012).
Scholars use this term in one of at least three ways. First, Edward W. Said (1978) uses it to describe the scholarly field of academic Orientalism that came into prominence in the later 19th and earlier 20th centuries, which he argues was devoted to imagining and constructing Islam as an inherently inferior, alien, and dangerous religion. According to Said, this Islamic Orientalism as an academic field failed to make the transition to a social science. Instead, it long continued to rely on a set of unthinking, anachronistic, essentializing, and dualistic myths about Islam. It failed to treat Islam critically. For Said, Bernard W. Lewis serves as the prototypical example of an Islamic Orientalist. Many other scholars follow Said in this usage, which is the most common and significant use of this term. Second, other scholars use this term more broadly to mean Saidian Orientalism (that is, negative ideological Orientalisms), and they link it to the first usage, above, by arguing that this broader usage reflects the influence Islamic Orientalism as an academic field of study exerted over writers, artists, politicians, social commentators, and Western societies generally. Influential segments of the Western world, that is, took their understanding of Islam from the academic Islamic Orientalists. Third and rarely, a few scholars use this term to describe Orientalist-like, essentializing Islamic thinking about other peoples and religions. It should be noted that scholars use this term exclusively to refer to Arab Muslims, and the terms Arab Orientalism, Arabic Orientalism, and Semitic Orientalism are often used as synonyms of this term. [12/17]
See also: Academic Orientalism, Arab Orientalism, Arabic Orientalism, Ideological Orientalism, Institutional Orientalism, Muslim Orientalism, Saidian Orientalism, Semitic Orientalism.
Sources & Examples: Cemil Aydýn, “Orientalism by the Orientals? The Japanese Empire and Islamic Studies (1931-1945).” Ýslâm Araþtýrmalarý Dergisi 14 (2005); Geeky Muslimah, “Understanding Orientalism and its Genesis,” 2017. At Troublesome Thirities: The Trials and Tribulations of a Geeky Muslimah (), accessed 12/17; Subhash Jaireth, “Tracing Orientalism in Cricket: A Reading of Some Recent Australian Cricket Writing on Pakistani Cricket.” Sporting Traditions 12 (1995); Timothy Worthington Marr, “Imagining Ishmael: Studies of Islamic Orientalism in America from the Puritans to Melville” (Ph.D. diss., Yale, 1997); Edward Said & Oleg Grabar, "Orientalism: an Exchange." The New York Review of Books (12 August 1982); Prakash Shah, “Hindu Objections to Reza Aslan’s Documentary are Missing a Crucial Point,” 2017. At daily O (), accessed 12/17; Jay Spaulding & Lidwien Kapteijns, “The Orientalist Paradigm in the Historiography of the Late Precolonial Sudan.” In Golden Ages, Dark Ages: Imagining the Past in Anthropology and History (U. of California, 1991); Marcus L. Stephenson & Nazi Ali, “Tourism and Islamophobia: Muslims in Non-Muslim States.” In Tourism in the Muslim World (Emerald Group, 2010).